This is an exploratory qualitative documentation about the camps in Famagusta, Cyprus, erected and run by the British Government, 1915-1949. There were at least five different groups to be interned in the camps, for various reasons and circumstances. This documentation maps the locations of the camps, outlines the circumstances which brought about their existence, describes some aspects of life in the camps, and relations between the camps' residents and the local population. The paper concludes that very little of the camps has survived, except for graves of some internees. Some of the British structures still exist in Karaolos and Xylotimbou; and perhaps some of the escape tunnels in the Gulseren Camp. Another possible finding is that the presence of the Germans on the island was kept secret from the locals for various reasons. It is hoped that further research will be carried out on some of the camps, especially the Russian, the German POWs, and the Turkish POWs.
Keywords: Cyprus, refugee camps, detention camps, Famagusta, 1915-49.
Bu calisma, Ingiliz hukumeti tarafindan 1915-1949 yillari arasinda insa edilmis olan Magusa'daki kamplarin nitelikleriyle ilgili bir dokumantasyondur. Bu kamplara en az bes milliyete mensup insan cesitli nedenlerden dolayi kapatilmislardir. Mevcut haritalar ve kamplarin yer secimleri kendilerini ortaya cikaran nedenleri aciklamakta; kamplardaki yasami ve kamp sakinleriyle yerli nufus arasindaki iliskiyi bir anlamda ortaya koyabilmektedir.
Calisma, bazi kamp sakinlerine ait mezarlar disinda kamplara ait yeterli sayida, belge olmadigini ortaya koymakla beraber, Gazimagusa Karakol ve Larnakaya yakin Xylotimbou bolgesinde ingilizler tarafindan yapilmis bazi kamp kalintilari oldugunu ve hatta Gazimagusa'daki Gulseren kampindan kacmak amaciyla kazildigi dusunulen tunellerin varligini ortaya cikarmistir. Diger bir olasi bulgu da adadaki Alman kampinin yerlilerden bircok nedenden dolayi saklandigidir. Son olarak ise ileride yapilacak calismalarin diger, ozellikle Rus, Alman ve Turk savas esirlerinin kapatildiklari kamplari konu almasi umulmaktadir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Kibris, tevkif kamplari, multeci kamplari, Magosa, 1915-49.
Alcatraz, Devil's Island, Sydney's Harbor Island, just a few locations where islands were used for detention, for political and criminal prisoners alike. The island of Cyprus was no exception; after British takeover in 1878, they used the island as a detention and refugee location, for at least five different groups: Turkish POWs during WWI, German POWs in WWII, and illegal Jewish immigrants (to Palestine) between August 1946 and February 1949. The fourth and fifth groups were hosted in Cyprus as a courtesy and not as detainees: these were the remaining troops of General Baron Ptoyer Wrangel, of the 'White Army', defeated in 1920 in Russia by the Bolsheviks, (1) and German nationals (Templers), (2) evacuated from Palestine in April 1948. All these groups were in the custody of the British in Famagusta.
This paper describes the camps in Famagusta, the circumstances which brought camp residents to Cyprus, aspects of life in the camps, relations between the local population and the detainees and attempts to locate relics of the camps. It is a story that must be told, as the relics of the camps are disappearing and ex-internees are growing old.
The British took over Cyprus...
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