Title: Artificial Intelligence
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7371 7373 7379 In the very simplest of terms, the artificial intelligence (AI) industry seeks to create machines that are capable of learning and intelligent thinking. It includes the development of computer-based systems that can learn from past behaviors and apply that knowledge to solving future problems. AI draws from a variety of academic fields, including mathematics, computer science, linguistics, engineering, physiology, philosophy, and psychology, and predates the modern computer age. Although it did not truly emerge as a stand-alone field of study until the late 1940s, logicians, philosophers, and mathematicians formed the foundation upon which modern AI rests during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The field of artificial intelligence gradually evolved during the last half of the twentieth century, when major research departments were established at prominent U.S. universities, beginning with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The U.S. government has been a dominant player in this market for many years, providing significant funding for military projects. However, private enterprise also is a major stakeholder. AI technology is used in such varied fields as robotics, information management, computer software, transportation, e-commerce, military defense, medicine, manufacturing, finance, security, emergency preparedness, and others. After years of frequent failures and narrow successes, artificial intelligence was going mainstream, according Gary Morgenthaler’s 2010 article, “AI’s Time Has Arrived.” Morgenthaler attributed this to a “confluence of trends,” including expanding broadband capability, cloud computing, improved AI algorithms, smartphones, and the steady expansion of raw processing power dictated by Moore’s Law. The AI industry is powered by a blend of small and large companies, government agencies, and academic research centers. Major research organizations within the United States include the Brown University Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, the University of Massachusetts Experimental Knowledge Systems Laboratory, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MIT, the Stanford Research Institute’s Artificial Intelligence Research Center, and the University of Southern California’s Information Sciences Institute. In addition, a large number of small and large companies also fuel research efforts and the development of new products and technologies. Software giants such as IBM Corp., Microsoft Corp., Oracle Corp., PeopleSoft Inc., SAS AB, and Siebel Systems Inc. are heavily involved in the development and enhancement of business intelligence, data mining, and customer relationship management software. Large corporate enterprises often have their own research arms devoted to advancing AI technologies. For example, Microsoft operates its Decision Theory and Adaptive Systems Group, AT&T operates AT&T Labs-Research (formerly AT&T Bell Labs), and Xerox Corp. is home to the Palo Alto Research Center. Associations. The artificial intelligence industry is supported by the efforts of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, or AAAI (formerly the American Association for Artificial Intelligence), a nonprofit scientific society based in Menlo Park, California. According to the AAAI, which was established in 1979, it is “devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and training of...
Source Citation (MLA 8 th Edition)
"Artificial Intelligence." Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries, edited by Lynn M. Pearce, 6th ed., Gale, 2011, pp. 73-80. Academic OneFile, Accessed 21 Mar. 2019.

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