Title: Human Immunodeficiency Virus and domestic violence: The sleeping giants of Indian health?
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Byline: Rob. Stephenson Over the past two decades, two significant public health concerns have begun to draw increasing attention in India: the increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the continued presence of high levels of domestic violence. Although HIV prevalence remains relatively low, India now has the largest absolute number of people living with HIV.[sup] [1] An estimated adult prevalence of approximately 1% translates into 5.7 million people living with HIV, of which 37% are women under the age of 30.[sup] [1] This epidemic is taking place in the context of a cultural environment which is characterized by high levels of violence and social norms that often support violence against women.[sup] [2] In such a setting, it is important to understand the intersections between HIV and domestic violence; as successful attempts to reduce HIV prevalence must also entail interventions to reduce domestic violence. Within the field of public health, there has been a growing recognition of the possible linkages between domestic violence and a range of adverse physical, mental and reproductive health outcomes; and recently, studies have suggested associations between the experiencing of domestic violence and the risk of sexually transmitted infections or HIV infection.[sup] [3],[4] The possible mechanisms for such relationships lie in the influence that exposure to domestic violence has on a woman's autonomy in sexual activity. Previous studies from India have reported a positive and systematic association between spousal physical and sexual abuse and unplanned pregnancies.[sup] [5] A primary explanation for this relationship may...
Source Citation (MLA 8 th Edition)
Stephenson, Rob. "Human Immunodeficiency Virus and domestic violence: The sleeping giants of Indian health?" Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 61, no. 5, 2007. Academic OneFile, Accessed 20 Mar. 2019.

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