The Rose Tattoo
Play, 1951
American Playwright ( 1911 - 1983 )
Other Names Used: Williams, Thomas Lanier;
Drama for Students. Ed. David A. Galens. Vol. 18. Detroit, MI: Gale, 2003. p176-206.
Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2003 Gale, COPYRIGHT 2006 Gale
Full Text: 
Page 176

The Rose Tattoo

INTRODUCTION
AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY
PLOT SUMMARY
CHARACTERS
THEMES
STYLE
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
CRITICAL OVERVIEW
CRITICISM
SOURCES
FURTHER READING

TENNESSEE WILLIAMS
1950

INTRODUCTION

Tennessee Williams's The Rose Tattoo was first staged in Chicago in 1950, premiered in New York City in 1951, and was a success with audiences. It is Williams's most light-hearted play, an homage, many say, to his beloved sister Rose and to Frank Merlo, whom Williams loved.

The drama chronicles events separated by three years in the life of its main character, Serafina Delle Rose. Serafina is characterized by her boastful pride, and the play's drama and humor revolves around whether she will learn humility.

What a close reading of the play suggests is that it is a mixed genre play. What this means is that it blends together distinct dramatic forms. The play synthesizes comedic elements, elements borrowed from ancient Greek tragedy, and elements that invoke ancient Greco-Roman celebrations of the god Dionysus. The play's comedy rests on its bawdiness and the way the characters get themselves into ridiculous fixes. Its nod to the classic, tragic form is that Serafina has a major flaw, like all tragic heroes. The play's focus on virility is its primary Dionysian element, as Dionysus is associated with life, love, virility, and intoxication. Dionysus is also, significantly, the god of right worship. He punishes mortals who think they are as great as gods or who refuse to give the gods their worshipful due. The two classic strains of the play work together in the way that the lusty Serafina is at once a celebration of life and a character whose flaw is self-worship.

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Like many of Williams's plays, The Rose Tattoo is set in the U.S. South, Williams's birthplace. It stands out, however, for its cast of characters, who are Italian Americans with Sicilian roots.

AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY

Tennessee Williams, a major twentieth-century U.S. playwright, was born Thomas Lanier Williams on March 26, 1911, in Columbus, Mississippi. Williams began writing as a child, publishing in junior high and high school publications. He continued publishing as he pursued his bachelor's degree, which he did leisurely, attending three different undergraduate institutions between 1929 and 1938. He decided to focus his creative energies primarily on drama during this period, although he wrote poetry, short stories, and novels throughout his life.

In 1939, Williams sent a set of one-act plays as a competition entry to the Group Theatre in New York, which was run by prominent members of the New York drama scene. They were impressed, awarded him prize money, and invited him to move to New York with the promise that they would help him further his career. The experience and contacts Williams gained in New York proved to be invaluable, and with the Broadway premiere of The Glass Menagerie in 1944, Williams's career was launched. This phenomenal critical and box-office success was soon followed by another, A Streetcar Named Desire. Both plays won New York Drama Critics Circle Awards and A Streetcar Named Desire won a Pulitzer Prize.

The Rose Tattoo, which premiered on Broadway in 1951, was Williams's third great box-office success. While certain prominent critics did not enjoy it as much as the public did, it nevertheless consolidated his position as a leading dramatist of the time and won a Tony Award. Indeed, Williams's popularity was such that many of his plays were adapted into films. These movies, most of them made in the 1950s and 1960s, helped define the cinematic era, even if Williams was never quite pleased with most of them.

Williams was a major force in drama internationally for many years, and he lived an active life. He traveled constantly within the United States and to Europe and had many loves. Despite his ongoing travel, he also stayed close to his family. He was


Tennessee Williams

Tennessee Williams

particularly fond of his grandfather and particularly protective of his sister Rose, who was incapable of working.

By 1970, Williams's popularity with the public and critics had waned. Nonetheless, he wrote until his death, and many of his plays were produced, though not on the scale and to the acclaim of his earlier plays. His major plays continue to be regularly performed. Williams died in New York City in 1983.

PLOT SUMMARY

Act 1, Scene 1

The Rose Tattoo opens with a view of a cottage, on whose front steps three neighborhood children sit. The children's mothers are calling them home to dinner, and the play's main character, Serafina delle Rose, appears on stage. She is looking for her own daughter, the twelve-year-old Rosa.

Next, Assunta, an old woman who practices "a simple sort of medicine," arrives on the scene. Over the course of her and Serafina's conversation, it is revealed that Serafina is deeply in love with herPage 178  |  Top of Article handsome husband, that she is extremely proud of his virility, that she is pregnant, and that her husband is a trucker who, while posing as a legitimate operator, in fact smuggles illegal goods.

Assunta leaves and another character, Estelle Hohengarten, is introduced. Serafina takes in sewing for cash. Estelle wishes her to make a shirt for a man with whom she is in love. Because Estelle behaves oddly and surreptitiously steals a framed photograph of Serafina's husband, these actions indicate that the man with whom she is in love and with whom she is having an affair is Serafina's husband, Rosario delle Rose.

The scene ends with a neighbor's goat running into Serafina's yard. This upsets Serafina as she is frightened of the woman who owns the goat, a character referred to as the "strega." Rosa states that by "strega" Serafina means witch. The scene ends with the strega cackling maliciously at Serafina's discomfiture and with Serafina exclaiming that the strega has given her the "evil eye": "Malocchio! Malocchio!"

Act 1, Scene 2

Scene 2 is very brief. It is dawn, and Serafina is sewing, since Estelle has told her that if she has the shirt done by the next day, she will pay her substantially more than her usual price. A priest, Father De Leo, and various neighborhood women are gathered outside Serafina's house. The police have shot Rosario, and they are deciding who must tell her. At the same time, since Rosario never came home the night before, and since Serafina can hear them outside talking, they are saying that she knows the truth already.

Act 1, Scene 3

Scene 3 takes place at noon the same day. A funeral wreath is on Serafina's door. A doctor and Father De Leo converse; Serafina has lost the baby. Father De Leo cautions the doctor to advise Serafina not to cremate her husband. The doctor notes that the body is already cremated, since after Rosario was shot, the truck crashed and caught fire. Yet, Father De Leo believes that if the body is not buried, Serafina will put the ashes of her husband in an urn and worship them like a pagan object.

Next, Estelle Hohengarten arrives in black mourning clothing. The neighborhood women, who have been inside with Serafina, leave the house and swoop around Estelle. Unlike Serafina, they know about Rosario's affair. They banish Estelle from Serafina's garden.

Act 1, Scene 4

This scene takes place three years later. It is graduation day for local teens, including Rosa, Serafina's daughter. Neighborhood mothers are at Serafina's door, asking for their daughters' graduation dresses, which Serafina has been commissioned to sew. She is not responding to their knocks. Inside, Rosa is nude. Her mother has locked away all of her clothes to prevent her from leaving the house. She has done this because Rosa went to a dance and met a young man in whom she is showing interest.

Miss Yorke, a teacher from the local high school, walks up at the same time Serafina bursts out of the house screaming that Rosa has cut her wrists. Miss Yorke investigates and finds that Rosa has just given herself a scratch to scare her mother. She tells Serafina to let Rosa dress for graduation. Rosa does, and she is beautiful in her white dress. Assunta, who is also present, convinces Serafina to hand over the other dresses, which Serafina does once the women assure her they have the money for them.

Act 1, Scene 5

Left alone after everyone has gone to the graduation ceremony, Serafina is worried she will miss it. She tries to pull herself together by beginning to get dressed, but her efforts are comically disastrous. In the previous scene, Serafina was dressed in a soiled pink slip and her hair was a mess. Clearly, in the three years since her husband's death, she has, just as Father De Leo predicted, wallowed in an unhealthy mourning. Her futile attempt to dress indicates that she has forgotten how to arrange herself in a presentable manner.

As Serafina continues her struggles, two new characters enter the scene, Bessie and Flora. They are, according to Williams's stage directions, "two female clowns of middle years and juvenile temperament."

The women want to pick up a blouse Flora commissioned. Serafina is distracted and searches for the wristwatch she wants to give Rosa for a graduation present. She tells Flora she was too busy making graduation dresses and does not have the blouse ready. Flora is angry because she is on her way to a parade in New Orleans and had beenPage 179  |  Top of Article counting on the blouse. She threatens to complain to the Chamber of Commerce. Bessie, too, is irritated as this delay has caused them to miss the earlier train. Serafina becomes angry herself, and the women begin brawling. One outcome of this altercation is that Flora tells Serafina that the husband she was so proud of and always boasts about was having an affair with Estelle Hohengarten. Serafina is devastated, sensing that Flora is telling the truth. The two women leave.

Act 1, Scene 6

Rosa is back from the graduation ceremony with Jack Hunter, the young man she is sweet on. They are discussing that night's graduation party and believe Serafina is out because the house is dark. Rosa expresses her attraction to Jack, teaching him the Italian word for "kiss" and then kissing him all over his face. But, Serafina is in the house and makes her presence known. Rosa insists that she meet Jack.

When Rosa enters the house with Jack, she is embarrassed at her mother's appearance. She quickly brushes her mother's hair and applies some powder to her face.

Serafina is in a daze, and Rosa thinks this is due to a combination of shock over her fake suicide attempt and exhaustion over having had to make so many dresses. She and Jack try to rouse Serafina by telling her about the graduation ceremony. Jack tells how Rosa was given a prize, recited a poem, and how the crowd emitted a collective sigh of awe over her beauty as she walked up to the podium.

Serafina is finally roused, but only so as to begin interrogating Jack. She insinuates that he is after her daughter's innocence and asks how this can be when her daughter is only fifteen. Jack, who is a sailor and brother of one of Rosa's classmates, protests and insists that his intentions are honorable. Serafina finds out that he is a Catholic and makes him swear before her statue of the Virgin Mary that he will respect her daughter. He does swear.

The two young people leave with friends for the island at which the post-graduation party will take place, and Serafina has forgotten once again to give her daughter the watch.

Act 2, Scene 1

The second act of the play is one long scene whose events take place two hours after the previous scene. Serafina is mooning about her garden, making a spectacle of herself, giving expression to her doubt and despair. Father De Leo arrives and tries to reason with her, telling her to pull herself together, to think of her daughter. Serafina asks him if he knows if her husband was having an affair. He refuses to discuss the issue, and Serafina becomes belligerent. Her anger attracts local women, who finally must drag her away from the priest.

As Serafina begins calling on the Virgin Mary to give her a sign, a traveling salesman arrives at her door. He is delivering his sales pitch when a truck is heard approaching. A truck driver, a "very good looking" Italian, approaches, speaking angrily. The salesman forced the Italian off the highway when passing him, quite unnecessarily given the breadth of the roadway, calling him a number of derogatory names in the process. The trucker, Alvaro, wishes to fight the salesman, even if this leads to a complaint and the loss of his job, because he feels the man has been exceptionally insulting and disrespectful. The salesman's response is to drive his knee into Alvaro's groin.

Alvaro, doubled over, stumbles into Serafina's house, sobbing. Serafina begins sobbing too, if mostly for her own reasons. Over their communal weeping, Serafina sees that Alvaro's jacket is torn, offers to sew it, and Alvaro worries that he will be fired and unable to care for what he calls his "three dependents" (his mother, sister, and father).

As Serafina sews, they converse. Serafina explains that her husband is dead, and she thinks, as she speaks, of how Alvaro has her husband's grand body but the aspect of a "clown." Alvaro, despite his good looks, has protruding ears, and Williams's stage directions indicate that he acts clownishly: "There is a startling, improvised air about him; he frequently seems surprised at his own speech and actions, as though he had not at all anticipated them."

Serafina also tells Alvaro about her husband's rose tattoo and boasts about him. It becomes clear that there is an attraction between Serafina and Alvaro. Alvaro, when he speaks, is practically asking Serafina to become his partner in life, if not in so many words, and Serafina is struggling to reconcile her attraction to Alvaro and her loyalty to her dead husband. They part with Serafina telling him to return and pick up his jacket later in the evening after his delivery rounds.

Act 3, Scene 1

Alvaro arrives with chocolates and is spiffed up after a visit to the barber for "the works," andPage 180  |  Top of Article Serafina is waiting, nicely cleaned up herself. Serafina discerns that Alvaro has rose oil in his hair, which disconcerts her, as her husband used to do the same thing. A bit later, Alvaro tells her he has a tattoo, a rose on his chest. This shocks Serafina even more, until Alvaro admits that he had it done that very day since she told him about her husband's tattoo. Alvaro, clearly, is trying most diligently to win Serafina, but his plans go awry when a condom falls out of his pocket.

At the sight of the condom and the thought of what their relations might lead to, Serafina commands Alvaro to leave. He is dismayed and begs her to reconsider. Serafina relents, telling him that her day has been terrible since she found out that her husband may have been cheating on her. As it turns out, Alvaro knows Estelle and where she works as a blackjack dealer, and he offers to telephone her to find out the truth once and for all. Over the phone, Estelle admits to the affair. The truth finally out, Serafina throws the urn of her husband's ashes to the floor and herself into Alvaro's arms. She tells him to drive his truck down the road, to park it, and to return quietly so nobody will know that she is having him stay the night.

Act 3, Scene 2

It is dawn the next day. Rosa and Jack are returning from their excursion. Jack is feeling guilty because he and Rosa have been intimate, even if they have not made love. He is thinking of the promise he made to Serafina. Yet, as in the previous scene between the two, it is Rosa who is the one most eager for intimacy. She is angry at her mother for the promise her mother extracted from Jack and tells him she will go into town to meet him the next day before his ship sails.

Act 3, Scene 3

The time of this scene, the play's last, is three hours later. It is early morning and Rosa wakes on the couch in the living room where she fell asleep. Alvaro emerges from Serafina's room, sees the drowsy, half-awake girl, and leans over her in shock and awe at her beauty. He is half-awake himself and appears to believe he is dreaming. Rosa, waking fully, screams, shocking Alvaro into realizing she is a real person. Serafina comes rushing out of her room and, in guilt over being caught with Alvaro, pretends he is an intruder and screams for him to leave. Rosa knows better, though, and tells her mother to calm herself. Alvaro in the meantime is expressing his love for Serafina, and Rosa blurts out that she plans to meet Jack before he sets sail. At first, Serafina objects, but then she tells her daughter to go, humbled before her daughter's certainty.

The neighborhood in the meantime has been roused by Serafina's earlier shouting about an intruder, and Assunta and the local women are watching events unfold. Rosa runs off and the women begin commenting on the presence of Alvaro and his rose tattoo (since his chest is bare). Serafina asks Assunta where the ashes of her husband have gone, because she wishes to retrieve them. Assunta tells her the wind blew them away. The local women are laughing at Serafina, but she does not mind. She believes she has conceived during her night of love, and the play closes with Alvaro and Serafina speaking to each other lovingly.

CHARACTERS

Assunta

Assunta is a wise old woman who sells herbal and other remedies to the local Sicilian American population, and she appears to be Serafina's only true friend. She listens to Serafina boast and rant, gives her advice, helps her in times of need, and ignores her when she is rude.

Bessie

Bessie, along with her counterpart Flora, is described in Williams's stage notes as a "clown" of middle age and "juvenile temperament." She has commissioned some sewing from Serafina, and, when she finds it is not finished on the day promised, she becomes angry and informs Serafina about Serafina's husband's infidelity. As far as Serafina is concerned, Flora and her friend are man-chasers and generally immoral.

Bruno

Bruno is one of a group of small children who appear on and off again in the play. These children have small speaking parts, but they are a significant presence on stage, as they convey the way that the play's celebration of life rests on more than a celebration of love, sexuality, and passion. Their wild, free, and innocent play conveys a sense of life that is essentially creative and pure.

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Father De Leo

Father De Leo is a stock representation of a good priest in the play. He appears during moments when Serafina is behaving in an antisocial and self-destructive manner, with the goal of bringing her back into the fold and making her see reason. He is a character defined by his profession, a priest who sees his role as the care of his community.

Rosa Delle Rose

Rosa is Serafina's daughter. She has inherited her father's startling good looks, and, like her mother, she is passionate. She is also quite precocious for her age, as she is certain about her love for Jack Hunter despite her tender age of fifteen.

While Rosa is genuinely fond of her mother, they are quite different in many respects. Much of their difference rests on Rosa's having been conventionally educated in the United States, whereas Serafina retains the culture of her peasant Sicilian background.

Rosario Delle Rose

Rosario, Serafina's husband, never appears on stage, but he is an important element in the play. Serafina talks of him being extremely good-looking, very manly, and a great lover. This combination of attributes contributes to the play's celebration of the beauty of life, love, sexuality, and passion.

Rosario's character also conveys a cautionary message, because he is deceitful. He fools Serafina into thinking that she is his only love and smuggles illegal goods under the cover of his legitimate trucking operation. The duplicity of his character points to Serafina's task in the play. She must distinguish between that which truly deserves worship and that which does not.

Serafina Delle Rose

Serafina is the play's main character, a woman whose problem is her untoward worship of her husband and, by extension, of herself. She begins the play boasting of her husband Rosario's beauty, virility, and love for her, while the neighborhood knows he is having an affair with Estelle Hohengarten. Serafina's boastfulness and ignorance of Rosario's true character make her an object of fun. However, since she is a sympathetic character and one whose boasting revolves around things relating to love and passion, her character contributes to the play's celebration of the life.

Rosario is killed at the play's start, and in the three years that separate the play's opening and concluding events, Serafina has continued to worship her husband and the memories she has of him. This unhealthy, excessive mourning has quelled Serafina's nature, which is passionate and revels in life, not death.

Serafina regains her lust for life when she learns the truth about her husband and a new man, the character Alvaro, enters her life. She also learns an important lesson in discovering her husband's deception, which is that nobody, including herself, is perfect.

Whatever Serafina does, she does to excess: at the play's start she is overdressed; in the middle of the play, when she is unhappy, she is slovenly. When she loves, she worships; when she is happy or angry, the whole neighborhood knows.

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MEDIA ADAPTATIONS

  • The Rose Tattoo was made into a feature film in 1995 directed by Daniel Mann and starring Anna Magnani as Serafina and Burt Lancaster as Alvaro.

The Doctor

The Doctor appears only once in the play, to tend to Serafina after she learns of her husband's death. The conversation he has with Father De Leo at this time is significant, because it underscores the play's focus on the sacred nature of life and love. As Father De Leo rightly worries whether Serafina will funnel her worship of her husband into a worship of his memory, the doctor cannot understand how this could ever be a problem. The doctor's inability to understand Serafina suggests his utterly profane nature. This man of science believes only in the facts of the physical world, where Father De Leo and Serafina are imbued with a spiritual sense that certain things are sacred.

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Flora

Flora is Bessie's friend and accompanies her to Serafina's house to pick up a blouse. Flora is dismayed when Bessie tells Serafina about Rosario's cheating. For this reason, she seems kinder than the more hotheaded Bessie.

Giuseppina

Giuseppina, along with Peppina and Mariella, is a neighborhood woman who interacts minimally with Serafina. Giuseppina and these women appear on stage mainly to comment on the play's events, most especially on Serafina's follies. Their role in the play is much like the role of the chorus in ancient Greek tragedy; they are a group of figures whose purpose is to reflect on unfolding events from the sidelines. This commentary either reiterates what is happening for dramatic effect or else conveys the point of view of the community at large. Giuseppina and her counterparts make up a comedic as opposed to a tragic chorus of women, since their point of view conveys how much the community takes delight in Serafina's misadventures. Serafina's misfortunes afford these onlookers pleasure because her pride and arrogance offends them.

Estelle Hohengarten

Estelle is the woman whom Serafina learns was having an affair with her husband. Estelle appears on stage only twice, both times briefly. She is a foil or contrast to Serafina in the way she symbolizes death and order where Serafina symbolizes life and chaos. Estelle is austere in both person and dress, in contrast to Serafina's excess and love of decoration. Estelle is a blackjack dealer at the local casino, which is where, presumably, she and Rosario originally meet.

Jack Hunter

Jack Hunter is the young man with whom Rosa is in love. He is a sailor and one of her school friend's brothers. Serafina is suspicious about his intentions in regards to her daughter, but he appears to be as much in love with Rosa as she is with him.

Alvaro Mangiacavallo

Alvaro is a Sicilian immigrant who appears in Serafina's life three years after her husband's death, and Serafina and he fall in love. Like Serafina's dead husband, Alvaro is a handsome truck driver who delivers bananas. Unlike her husband, he is clownish in his behavior. Yet, he is likeable. He wishes to be married to someone like Serafina who busies herself making money, as he himself is dedicated to work and has three dependents (a mother, father, and sister).

At first, Alvaro's nature repels Serafina, but she quickly comes to appreciate his good qualities, one of which is his admiration for her. Alvaro's last name, Mangiacavallo, means, roughly, "to eat a horse," symbolizing his great lust for life.

Alvaro's similarity to and difference from Rosario is significant and indicates Serafina's development in the play. Since Serafina meets Alvaro after she learns about her husband's deceit, she sees Alvaro as he really is, ordinary, as opposed to how she saw her husband, perfect. In other words, Alvaro's character is as much a product of Serafina's point of view as it is a product of his own qualities. If she were still deluded as to the true nature of her husband, she might have seen Alvaro as another god, as her husband's reincarnation.

Mariella

Mariella is a neighborhood woman who, along with Giuseppina and Peppina, comments on Serafina's actions and conveys the point of view of the local Sicilian American community at large. The group's commentary heightens the drama and comedy of the play by emphasizing particularly important and ridiculous turns of event.

Peppina

Like Mariella and Giuseppina, Peppina is a neighborhood woman who functions to comment on Serafina's actions. She and they believe that Serafina needs to learn humility and so they are not overly concerned when Serafina suffers.

The Salesman

The salesman appears only once in the play and serves to demonstrate how Italian immigrants were subject to poor treatment. As he is trying to sell his wares to Serafina, Alvaro appears on the scene explaining how the man forced his truck off thePage 183  |  Top of Article highway, for no good reason, uttering ethnic slurs in the process. This suggests the salesman's hypocrisy. He is polite to immigrants to whom he is trying to sell goods, but at the same time he secretly despises them.

The Strega

The strega is the old woman who lives next to Serafina and whose goat always strays into her yard. Serafina is convinced the old woman is a witch, despite Rosa's insistence that she is being superstitious. Every time Serafina sees the strega, she makes a special gesture to protect herself against the woman's supposed evil powers, which affords the old woman a great deal of malicious pleasure. The woman's maliciousness is evinced also in her frequent disparaging comments about the doings of the "wops" who live around her. The word "wop" was an ethnic slur for Italian immigrants at the time.

THEMES

Pride

One of Serafina's defining characteristics is her pride. She is excessively proud of her husband, Rosario, and seems to think that his glory reflects on her. This is shown in her boasting. She boasts about Rosario's beauty, virility, and family. She claims, for example, that he was a baron in Sicily, though few believe her.

While on one level, Serafina's boastful pride is ridiculous and humorous, on another, it constitutes the play's nod at classical Greek tragedy. In classical tragedy, the hero always has a significant tragic flaw, and hubris, or pride, is often that flaw. However, while in ancient drama the flaw is a factor contributing to the play's tragic events, in Williams's play, Serafina overcomes her weakness. Her change of heart comes about partly because she accepts that her husband was not perfect after all. Further, she signals, in her love for Alvaro, that she is not so glorious and is capable of loving someone who is not perfect.

Humanity

The Rose Tattoo is a very human play, despite its borrowings from the austere, heroic tradition of classical tragedy. Serafina may have a character flaw that is reminiscent of the hubris that besets so many classical heroes, but she is far more a comedic figure than a tragic one. In having Serafina learn that she is ordinary, and in depicting her as essentially ridiculous, Williams fondly suggests that humans are, precisely, quite ridiculous most of the time and hardly grand at all. The element in the play that best encapsulates Williams's notion of humanity is the play's many references to clowns and clown-like behavior. A clown is a figure who makes people laugh, usually by suffering terrible indignities. In other words, Williams suggests that at the same time that people suffer terribly they are poor creatures whose lives are comic misadventures.

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TOPICS FOR FURTHER STUDY

  • Research the history of vaudeville in any major U.S. city. To what other forms of comic and popular entertainment is it related?
  • Compare and contrast the cultural presence and importance of the gods Dionysus (Greek) and Bacchus (Roman) in ancient Greece and Rome.
  • Research the history of Italian American immigration in the United States. A possible focus could be Italian American immigration within the southern United States.
  • Explore evolving representations of one U.S. ethnic minority in U.S. film and/or television. In light of your research, would you say representations of minorities in American films has become more or less accurate over time?

Idolatry

Williams evokes ancient (pre-Christian) Greco-Roman religion in his play, through its focus on sexuality and virility and through the many references to wine. Specifically, he gestures toward the god Dionysus (Greek) or Bacchus (Roman). This god was the caretaker of many things, for example wine, creative intoxication, sexuality, passion, regeneration,Page 184  |  Top of Article male sexual potency, and right worship. Serafina is, in one guise, what would have been known in ancient times as a "bacchante," as her worship of her extremely virile husband is akin to a worship of male sexual potency, and hence Bacchus in general.

In gesturing toward this god, Williams in some sense resuscitates him approvingly. The play is a celebration of life, sexuality, and passion. Yet, the play also makes it clear that Serafina worships her husband inordinately. Indeed, when he dies, she puts his urn of ashes on her mantle and seems to think of it as an object to be worshipped in her husband's stead. In a sense, Serafina treats her husband as a god when he is alive and the urn as an object of worship when he is dead. Since idolaters are persons who worship things not approved of by those practicing official religion, Serafina is an idolater in the play. She elevates her husband and his remains in an improper manner.

Serafina learns proper conduct by the play's end, as she learns that neither her husband nor she are deserving of worship. Yet, she retains her lust for life. In remaining passionate and in having learned who and what properly deserves adulation, Serafina develops over the course of the play into a truly proper worshiper of Dionysus, as this god not only represents the life force but right worship as well.

Life and Death

The Rose Tattoo sets up a particular opposition of life and death in the opposition of Serafina and Estelle. This duality associates chaos and excess with life and order and restraint with death.

Serafina evokes a chaotic, burgeoning life force in many ways. Her elaborate outfits, hairstyle, and jewels are gaudy at the play's opening, but endearingly suggestive of a passionate, happy nature at the same time. Her husband's virility and her own fertility, in conjunction with her healthy plumpness and interest in sex, suggest the ongoing nature of life. Her cluttered house further suggests chaos at the same time that it serves as a hive of purposeful productivity, since Serafina runs a business from home.

Estelle Hohengarten is in every way Serafina's opposite, embodying forces that counter those that Serafina expresses. Where Serafina is plump and drawn to the gaudy, Williams's stage directions describe Estelle as slim and dressed in clothes suggestive of minimalism and restraint: "She is a thin blonde woman in a dress of Egyptian design." Ancient Egyptian art and clothing are known for their simplicity, their severe abstraction, and for the many rules that govern their design.

Estelle is linked to death because she first appears in Serafina's life the day Rosario is killed, and she is on stage only one other time in the play, namely the next day at Rosario's wake. Death counters life, then, as order counters chaos, as the definitive cessation of all open-ended creativity, activity, and productivity.

STYLE

The Bawdy and Slapstick

This mostly light-hearted play is funny largely owing to its bawdy humor and slapstick action. Bawdy humor refers to uncomplicated wit that focuses on bodily functions. In this play, the bodily function at issue is sex, with Serafina boasting continuously of her husband's wonderful performance in bed and her own lusty enjoyment of the sexual act. One particular bawdy element is Rosario and Alvaro's job, which is to transport bananas. The way in which this fruit conjures the male sex is blatant and silly, and therefore bawdy.

The slapstick dimension of the play is another reason why it is comedic. Slapstick humor is physical comedy, as when characters trip over things, have things fall on their heads, behave outrageously, and so forth. The Rose Tattoo is replete with slapstick events. Serafina frequently parades in a state of semi-undress for all to see, stumbles around her house as she tries to squeeze herself into a girdle, and generally makes a fool of herself.

Symbolism

Williams employs many symbols in this play. Symbols are objects, names, or persons in an artwork that suggest many things as opposed to just one. Primary among the play's symbols are thePage 185  |  Top of Article character names, which are suggestive of the rose flower (Rosa and Rosario), Rosario's and Alvaro's rose tattoos, and Serafina's dress-shop mannequins.

Red roses are commonly associated with love and passion, and Williams exploits these associations to their fullest. The play's focus on life, physical passion, and the spiritual communion between lovers is made amply evident through its plethora of roses. Serafina's certainty that a rose tattoo temporarily appears on her bosom the night she conceives a child with her husband hints at Williams's desire to suggest a spiritual dimension to sex and love, the manner in which the closeness between lovers makes them mystically one and the same.

Serafina's group of mannequins suggest social censure and the importance of communal life, among other things. They suggest social censure because, as a group of figures, they are doubles for the group of neighborhood women who believe that Serafina is too proud for her own good. They suggest the importance of community because in standing in for the neighborhood women, they point to how Serafina has isolated herself from the larger community.

Primitivism

Primitivism refers to a particular way in which artists working within European traditions in the early and mid-twentieth century used other cultures and these cultures' artworks in their own work. Art from distant lands was upheld as embodying a beauty and artistry that suggested a greater closeness to nature and to truth. For Western artists, the works pointed to something that had been lost and was yearned for. This was a simple way of life, one in touch with the simple and the sacred. Western artists admired these works and adopted their forms. Yet, it is now understood that these artworks signified entirely different things in the cultures from which they sprang, that the cultures Western artists imagine (appreciated for their simplistic truth in art were merely imagined cultures. In seeking the truth in art, certain Western artists manipulated the truth by taking foreign art out of its cultural context and then attributing value to it based on Western aesthetic sensibilities.) were just that, imagined cultures. Consequently, this primitivism seems naïve in retrospect, obscuring the complexity of these cultures and their peoples, and obscuring as well the way that cultures of all kinds necessarily impose upon individuals any number of constraints in the interests of upholding tradition and social order. Williams's play is primitivist in the sense that he employs a cast of Sicilian American characters of peasant roots and depicts them as persons controlled by elemental forces and largely devoid of self-reflection. These characters do not appear to think; they appear merely to act. And when they act, their actions follow from the controlling power of elemental forces, such as the sexual impulse, hate, love, envy, jealousy, and so forth. These Italian immigrants might be Westerners, but since they come from peasant stock they are to be understood as primitives. Williams's play is primitive in the sense that he employs a cast of Sicilian American characters of peasant roots and uses them to represent the importance of the elemental things in life.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

The Rose Tattoo was composed in the late 1940s, in the period following World War II, which U.S. intervention had hastened to an end with the first deployment of nuclear warheads in history, the dropping of two atomic bombs in Japan. The citizens of the many countries decimated by this war lived in its pall during the 1940s, while the United States' more peripheral involvement meant that U.S. citizens were less severely affected. U.S. culture flourished diversely in the 1940s, leading to the cultural phenomenon of the 1950s, when U.S. popular culture swept the world.

The 1940s in the United States are noteworthy for numerous developments. This was the beginning of U.S. suburban life, when developers began responding to a housing need that urban, inner-city spaces could not accommodate. These new homes, moreover, were furnished like homes never before, as household timesaving appliances such as washers, dryers, vacuum cleaners, and the like became widely available and affordable. Television also made its first appearance in the 1940s.

In the social and political arenas, U.S. citizens began witnessing the first upheavals of what would become the civil rights movement. For example, the first African American baseball player was admitted into the major leagues in 1947; this was JackiePage 186  |  Top of Article Robinson who played for the Brooklyn Dodgers. By the mid-1950s, African Americans were fully mobilized, with leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. organizing numerous effective demonstrations that resulted in the full desegregation of U.S. institutions by the late 1960s.

One major political development of the 1940s was the "Red Scare," which followed from the post-WWII inception of the Cold War between the United States and the United Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.). This war was "cold" because it did not involve warfare. Rather, it was an ideological contest, a world battle of belief. The United States was committed to the spread of capitalism; the U.S.S.R. was committed to the spread of communism. The Red Scare in the United States refers to the way in which the hunt for communists within the United States reached a level of hysteria, with persons being called forth to testify about their political beliefs or those of their friends and colleagues. Many believe this development went against the grain of the United States' belief in free speech, thought, and dissent. Many persons were prevented from holding jobs or pursuing their professions owing to either their beliefs or simply suspicions about them.

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COMPARE & CONTRAST

  • 1940s: Italy, where Williams traveled more than once during the 1940s, is attempting to recover from the devastating events of World War II.
    Today: Italy is a major tourist destination now that global travel is common.
  • 1940s: Televisions make their way into people's homes and new, televised dramatic forms such as the situational comedy (sit-coms) are developed.
    Today: Most U.S. citizens tune into a favorite television comedy or drama each day of the week.
  • 1940s: Musical films and plays become a dominant form during the Great Depression and continue to be popular during WWII, partly in response to a need for levity and temporary escape from grim circumstances.
    Today: Musicals continue to be popular fare on Broadway. They are being performed in smaller off-Broadway productions as well, and various prime-time television shows are beginning to incorporate musical interludes.
  • 1940s: Italian Americans contribute diversely to U.S. culture and often are depicted in film and drama so as to highlight a greater cultural expressiveness.
    Today: Italian-American Mafia culture continues to fascinate the U.S. public since the release of Francis Ford Coppola's Godfather trilogy, 1972–1990. Television shows like the Sopranos, airing on HBO, enjoy widespread audience appeal.
  • 1940s: Racial segregation and ethnic prejudice are prominent in the United States.
    Today: Tensions are still felt among the various ethnic populations of the United States although great progress has been made. Immigration remains a heated issue.
  • 1940s: Method acting encourages greater emotional expressiveness in acting, partly by schooling actors to identify with the characters they are representing. Method acting is based on the idea that actors achieve greater verisimilitude when they do not rely solely on technique, but rather attempt to imaginatively become their characters as well.
    Today: Most actors' training today is diverse, taking from and crossing various techniques and methods.

At the same time, drama, film, and the arts in general were flourishing in the United States. When Williams entered the dramatic scene, he had much to live up to, as notable U.S. playwrights such asPage 187  |  Top of Article Carson McCullers, Clifford Odets, and Thornton Wilder, for example, were at the height of their creative powers. Like the work of these other dramatists, Williams's is, on the whole, highly serious, and so The Rose Tattoo stands out in Williams's body of work for its broad comedy.

The Rose Tattoo's fond treatment of its group of Sicilian American characters points to Williams's conviction that Anglo-American culture at the time was marred by racial and ethnic prejudice. Thus, the play's unsympathetic characters display a disparaging attitude toward the Sicilian immigrants that was consistent with the prejudices indicative of American reality.

At the same time, some Americans looked down on Italian immigrants or their children, others welcomed the cultural contributions of Italian Americans. There were few singers more popular than Frank Sinatra or Dean Martin at the time, for example. There was a vogue for things Italian in the 1940s and 1950s, partly owing to the success of Sinatra and others, and also due to the importation of Italian films into the United States. Italy was experiencing a golden age in cinema, and many Italian actors were courted by Hollywood to star in U.S. made, English language films. One of these actors, Anna Magnani, was cast in the film version of The Rose Tattoo.

CRITICAL OVERVIEW

The Rose Tattoo, which was a box-office success on Broadway, followed two other major Broadway successes for Williams, The Glass Menagerie and A Streetcar Named Desire. The play's popularity with the public garnered it a Tony Award, with critics, on the whole, seeing it as a less successful play than the two previous successes.

William Hawkins's mixed review is typical of critical reaction following the play's Broadway opening. Writing for the New York World-Telegram and The Sun, he states that in "its favor the play has atmosphere and warmth." Yet, he writes, "the humor often seems glued to the surface, and passages of the play are endlessly chatty and repetitious." Other critics thought the play's bawdy humor worked awkwardly with its other, more serious intentions, or that the comedy was crude as opposed


Burt Lancaster, as Alvaro Mangiacavallo, and Anna Magnani, as Serafina Delle Rose, in a scene from the 1955 film adaptation of The Rose Tattoo, directed by Daniel Mann

Burt Lancaster, as Alvaro Mangiacavallo, and Anna Magnani, as Serafina Delle Rose, in a scene from the 1955 film adaptation of The Rose Tattoo, directed by Daniel Mann

to bawdy. According to Margaret Marshall writing for the Nation, the play descends "into cheap farce which must be seen to be believed. The absurd and the vulgar contend for place."

Yet, in an essay from Tennessee Williams: A Tribute, entitled "Sentiment and humor in equal measure": Comic Forms in The Rose Tattoo," Philip C. Kolin argues that a proper understanding of the play's comedy is crucial for appreciation. He states that the play is "an experiment in comedy," in which various comedic forms are juxtaposed and blended. These forms, says Kolin, "range from slapstick humor, including farce, music hall antics, and vaudeville to folk, satiric, and romantic comedy, and, occasionally, tragicomedy." More recently in "The Family of Mitch," in Magical Muse: Millennial Essays on Tennessee Williams, Kolin has written on the character of Alvaro. He argues that Alvaro is one of Williams's plays' "unsuitable suitors," a "loser who becomes a winner," as Williams is interested in resisting the conventional romance formula in which suitors are perfectly manly and gentlemanly.

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Most commentary on the play touches on its Dionysian dimension, its celebration of life and sexuality. For example, in A Critical Introduction to Twentieth-Century American Drama, C.W.E. Bigsby states that the play is about the "resilience of the human spirit, the undeniable power of the will to live and the primacy of the sexual impulse."

The Rose Tattoo is one of Williams's plays that continues to be revived, and what audiences see each time depends upon the interpretation and vision of the director in question. Also affecting critical and audience reception is the prevailing cultural climate. Thus, for example, when the play was revived in New York City in 1966, critics were more appreciative. Their more positive response, says Kolin, follows from the fact that theater in the 1960s had taken an absurdist turn: "In the 1966 revival of The Rose Tattoo, Williams' comedy had evidently changed for reviewers—it had become appropriately grotesque. If they would not assent to it as it was, they could at least praise the absurdist elements, in vogue in avant-garde theater both here and abroad."

CRITICISM

Carol Dell'Amico

Dell'Amico is an instructor of English literature and composition. In this essay, Dell'Amico discusses major symbols in Williams's play.

As Philip C. Kolin observes in Tennessee Williams: A Tribute, The Rose Tattoo is "an experiment in comedy," a blending of many comedic traditions. Slapstick, farcical, and bawdy elements are predominant, as the play is a strung together series of ridiculous events revolving around Serafina Delle Rose, a woman whose major preoccupation is her handsome husband's virility. Williams's play is a comic celebration of what the ancient Greeks or Romans would call the Dionysian elements of life, a celebration of eros, creative intoxication, virility, and regeneration. The play also celebrates fertility, however, and so Williams adds to the Greco-Roman mix.

Williams's idiosyncratic and playful experiment stands out within the context of his work as a whole, as most of his other plays are serious dramas shot through with tragedy and eruptions of violence. Yet, tying this play to Williams's other works is its development of the sacred nature of life and love. This theme is never the primary theme in his other works, but Williams's treatment of love and sexuality throughout his career is intense, usually revolving around religious and psychological themes. Also tying the play to Williams's other works is its dense symbolism, which is the subject of this essay. Symbols are things, persons, events, names, or images in an artwork that evoke a number of related associations, and they reflect and inform a work's themes.

In the published version of the play, Williams's stage notes indicate that The Rose Tattoo opens with a view of what will be the play's only setting, Serafina's house and garden. Her cottage, he writes, is "in a village populated mostly by Sicilians somewhere along the Gulf Coast between New Orleans and Mobile." The setting is semi-tropical, with palms trees waving gently in a soft wind, "tall canes," and a "fairly thick growth of pampas grass." A folk singer at the edge of the stage sings and strums on a guitar as the curtain rises, and then, "in voices near and distant, urgent and tender, like the variable notes of wind and water," the sound of mothers' voices calling their children home to dinner is heard. It is just before dusk, "prima sera" or "first dusk" in Italian, and Venus, "the female star," burns with "an almost emerald lustre" above.

Three of the children being called home to dinner are sitting on Serafina's front steps; they are Bruno, Salvatore, and Vivi. One holds "a red paper kite," one a "hoop," and the third holds "a doll dressed as a clown." The children are "in attitudes of momentary repose," Williams writes, "all looking up at something—a bird or a plane passing over—as the mothers' voices call them." Bruno speaks first:

BRUNO: The white flags are flying at the Coast Guard Station.

SALVATORE: That means fair weather.

VIVI: I love fair weather.

The weather of comedy is spring, "fair weather," which is mostly what the play delivers; yet, the statuesque stillness of these children announces what will be an accompanying, muted undercurrent of drama and even tragedy in the play.

Williams's children, and birds and song, are recurring symbolic elements in the play's evocation of life. The innocence of children, the flight and song of birds, and the song of humans are all things that connote life's beauties and joys. These various symbols are suggestive of freedom, creativity, joyousPage 189  |  Top of Article rhapsody, and spontaneity, qualities that join Williams's other evocations of life as those that are expressed in passions, emotions, and love.

The children's toys also resonate symbolically. The hoop evokes the circle of life or nature's unending cycle. It also refers to Serafina's womb, the way she is a celebration of female fertility in the play. Contributing further to Williams's evocation of sacred womanhood and fertility is the "female star" Venus and Serafina's experience of conception as a miracle.

The second toy, the kite, reminds us of children's play, of a gleeful immersion in play's pursuit. The kite's color refers to the redness of the rose flower and evokes, as well, the free flight of birds and the wind that carries the women's songs. The third toy, the clown doll, is the first of the play's many clowns. It works with Alvaro's, Bessie's, and Flora's clownishness, not to mention Serafina's, and evokes Williams's comedic view of humanity in The Rose Tattoo. Clowns, traditionally, have sad faces and suffer hilarious mishaps. Even as Serafina suffers terribly the death of her beloved husband, Williams seems to say, she remains a mortal whose misadventures are also comic.

In a sense, Serafina's task in the play is to see herself as a clown, to dispel all the illusions she has about herself. This self-delusion is shown in the way she elevates herself and her husband into living gods. She proclaims that her husband is royalty, a baron, and is convinced that the Christian goddess, the Virgin Mary, sends her signs. In fact, Serafina's idea that her conceptions are miracles suggests how she puts herself on a par with the Virgin Mary, whose conception of Jesus Christ is a miracle in Christianity. Serafina believes, further, that the neighborhood women should recognize her exceptional qualities.

Serafina is simultaneously the heart of the play's celebration of life and an element in the play's comedic farce. Her self-aggrandizement is comic because she is, clearly, a very ordinary woman. She is vain, squeezing herself into over-tight girdles; her husband, sadly, is deceitful; and, she lives a modest life in a cottage. The neighborhood women's derision puts Serafina in her place, showing up her ridiculous, overblown boasting.

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WHAT DO I READ NEXT?

  • Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire was first staged in New York City in 1947 and remains one of his most celebrated works. Its main character, Blanche DuBois, is a sensitive and compromised Southern woman who succumbs to madness, overwhelmed by guilt and an inability to adapt to a changing world.
  • The Night of the Iguana (1960) was one of Williams's last great successes. This play explores a set of socially marginal characters who find redemption despite their weaknesses and disappointments.
  • Carson McCullers's novel The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1940) grows, like Williams's work, out of a strong Southern tradition in U.S. literature. This novel, like the Southern tradition in general, has strong gothic and grotesque overtones.
  • The Sound and the Fury (1929), by William Faulkner, is set in the U.S. South, as are most of Williams's plays. Like Williams, Faulkner explores the tensions within Southern U.S. culture, especially as this culture's regional values conflict with those of the broader, national U.S. culture.
  • The Kindness of Strangers: The Life of Tennessee Williams (1985), by Donald Spoto, is a highly readable biography and a thorough treatment of Williams's life and works.

The women in the play also contribute to the play's celebration of life, however, because even as they are right in criticizing Serafina, it seems thatPage 190  |  Top of Article Serafina is right to criticize them. She accuses them of having given up on love and romance. Serafina, and the audience by extension, see them as people who have lost touch with life's sacred, joyous dimension.

The dressmaker dummies are symbolically the women's doubles in the play, but more than this as well. Williams imagined a group of seven dummies on the set:

An outdoor sign indicates that Serafina, whose home the cottage is, does "SEWING." The interior furnishings give evidence of this vocation. The most salient feature is a collection of dressmaker's dummies. There are at least seven of these life-size mannequins, in various shapes and attitudes. [They have pliable joints so that their positions can be changed. Their arms terminate at the wrist. In all their attitudes there is an air of drama, somewhat like the poses of declamatory actresses of the old school].

These dummies' immobility, stark forms, and truncated arms suggest death, and so they add to the undercurrent of drama and tragedy in the play. They are like statues, too, so they further suggest the children's presence and postures in the play, postures that are similarly carefully choreographed so as to add a dramatic undercurrent to the play. In acting as a reminder of the group of neighborhood women, the dummies connote both Serafina's unhealthy, deluded isolation and the women's suppressed, death-like lives.

Williams, thus, does not banish death from his play about life. Rosario dies; there is a wake; the mannequins beckon as reminders of death; and Serafina is a widow. Also ominously juxtaposed against the play's celebration of life is the presence of evil, conveyed by the play's goat. Goats, especially in a Greco-Roman context, symbolize evil, death, eros, and sexual licentiousness. The play's goat thus suggests that there are violent and excessive strains of love and passion, strains allied with death and not life.

In addition to symbolizing evil into the play, the goat adds to its comedy. The goat belongs to Serafina's unlikable next door neighbor and frequently escapes, or is let loose, and marauds through Serafina's yard. Its owner and numerous children flood Serafina's yard on a mad chase for the goat, with Serafina orchestrating events from her porch. These bursts of chaos and boisterousness are comic, classic farcical chase scenes.

The central symbol of the play, however, is the red rose flower, to which the symbol of wine is related. Serafina only drinks of the wine of the red grape from Sicily, and she parades in scenes in a pink slip with its bodice stained with wine. Wine is the gift of the god Dionysus, the drink of creative intoxication and the elixir of love. Serafina's stain is like a big rose on her chest, and so she has a rose tattoo like Rosario and Alvaro. She is bursting with life and is an embodiment of the life force and sexuality. The deep red of the red rose flower is the color of blood and its scent is intense and sweet; it is associated with love, romance, and all manner of passionate life.

The rose flower is the central symbol in Williams's densely symbolic play. It is a plethora of roses, a bouquet from Williams to the public at large.

Source: Carol Dell'Amico, Critical Essay on The Rose Tattoo, in Drama for Students, Gale, 2003.

Philip C. Kolin

In the following essay, Kolin explores Williams' turn to comedy and his other motivations in The Rose Tattoo.

When The Rose Tatto made its Broadway appearance on 3 February 1951, Tennessee Williams did not have a reputation as a comic writer. Quite to the contrary, his two hits, The Glass Menagerie and A Streetcar Named Desire, had, according to Life, established him as a dramatist who "could write only about doom-ridden damsels." For his comic efforts in The Rose Tattoo, Williams was promptly whipped. As the reviewer in Newsweek put it, "there is an uneasy feeling that his new play is sometimes funny without quite intending to be." Williams' humor was labeled in the basest terms. The more serious events in act one "descend into cheap farce which must be seen to be believed," wrote Margaret Marshall in The Nation.Page 191  |  Top of Article The reviewer for Time, contemptuous of the rapid changes of mood, renamed the play Banana Truck Named Desire. F. W. Dupee ("Literature on Broadway," The Partisan Review, May 1951, p. 334) quickly summarized the critical opinion of Serafina and much else in the play when he said it was "farced-up."

In the 1966 revival of The Rose Tattoo, Williams' comedy had evidently changed for reviewers—it had become appropriately grotesque. If they could not assent to it as it was, they could at least praise the absurdist elements, in vogue in avant-garde theater both here and abroad. Williams' play had been acceptably reclassified through making virtues of its earlier vices. Absurdity by any other name is just as meet for neurotically-conditioned audiences. Henry Hewes offered an explanation for the approval: "Now it very probably was not Mr. Williams's intention to write The Rose Tattoo as a grotesque comedy, but that is what this new presentation seems, and that is why it appears not in the least bit dated" (Saturday Review, November 1966). Jan Kott, who has found Shakespeare so relevant to our "absurd" world, would readily have approved of the change. Yet, regardless of the revival, and perhaps because of it, critics, with a few exceptions, have dismissed The Rose Tattoo as one of Williams' lesser accomplishments, better left on the rose heap. Ruby Cohn has given the play its death-knell: "He probably intended The Rose Tattoo to be something of a saturnalia, a joyous celebration of sex, but (when we are not simply bored) we tend to laughed at rather than with the celebrants. To his credit, though, the play was and is still good box office."

Why in 1950–51 did Williams write a work which seemed in so many ways to differ from his previous, and successful, plays? Biography provides a few clues. Williams had just returned from a sojourn in Italy, the land of warm sunshine and fiery passions, and said, "I have never felt more hopeful about human nature as a result of being exposed to the Italians" (quoted in Saturday Review, March 1951). While in Sicily Williams must have soaked up enough local culture to write knowledgeably about the folklore, language, and characters of the region and create the Dionysian elements he claims to have captured in the play (Vogue, March 1951). Birds, children, goats, sky, fruit, earth, sun, and air—all are found in The Rose Tattoo.

Biography aside, Williams' neglect yet strong flair for the comic is found not only in The Rose Tattoo but elsewhere in his work. In a provocative article ("The Comic Tennessee Williams"), Charles Brooks calls Williams "an essentially comic playwright" whose "greatest power and appeal derive from a comic vision which he seems unwilling to trust fully." In his review Hewes had said that comedy—even the more grotesque variety—could "open up a green territory in which Tennessee Williams might profitably exercise his talent." Classifying Williams' play by genres—tragedies or comedies—is gross oversimplification. Comedy is as difficult to define as tragedy. Socrates long ago said (in The Symposium) they were similar, often reaching the same ends; and Aristotle unfortunately never discussed that tragedy which, like a comedy, has a happy ending. The Rose Tattoo is easier to type than other Williams' plays because of both its virtues and its faults. It successfully dramatizes the fulfillment of hope and love. The play is an experiment in comedy, a potpourri of comedic forms, sometimes blended and sometimes juxtaposed. Comic forms range from slapstick humor, including farce, music hall antics, and vaudeville to folk, satiric, and romantic comedy, and, occasionally, tragicomedy. Even sadness is assimilated into the comic vision.

The Rose Tattoo has characteristics of low comedy or farce. But within this broad category are elements of vaudeville, Chaplinesque humor, and vestiges of the commedia dell'arte. Though dissatisfied reviewers and critics have lampooned Williams for his cheap and unsophisticated displays, jests and clowning are part of his stagecraft from his early works to his middle ones (Camino Real) to hisPage 192  |  Top of Article late ones (Gnädiges Fräulein). Williams is a shrewd man of the theater, keenly aware that laughs as well as tears sell tickets. He incorporates many comic gags, verbal and physical, to entertain and cajole his audience, and, at times, make them feel superior to his characters.

One of Williams' greatest achievements as a comic dramatist is his use of dialogue, though Ruby Cohn observes: "Larded with Italian phrases and locutions, the English is surprisingly grammatical, the vocabulary extensive, and the emotions self-consciously expressed." Regardless of Serafina's regular syntax, the play is fastmoving, speeded along by a series of one-liners that are the classic tool of the comedian's art. These are hurled at and by Serafina, some of them as cutting as the knife she will use on Estelle, others as sharp as a courtier's rapier.

These one-liners are well-suited to the Italian temperament. Angered by Serafina's delay in sewing their daughters' graduation dresses, local mothers pounce on her. One of them exclaims: "Listen, I pay in advance five dollars and get no dress. Now what she wear, my daughter, to graduate in? A couple of towels and a rose in her hair?" She thus makes sport of both the Delle Rose name (and emblem) and Serafina's impoverishing profession. When Rosa stands naked in the window, her clothes hidden by her suspicious mother, Williams demonstrates his agility with an Italian pun when a neighbor says: "In nominis padri et figlio et spiritus sancti. Aaahh!" Figlio, the child of naked vulnerability, such as Rosa is judged to be, replaces the filio of the invocation. Later, Rosa catches her mother in an embarrassing lie when Serafina explains Alvaro's presence by saying he was chased by the police. Rosa shrewdly inquires: "They chased him into your bedroom?" And the disarray in which Serafina finds herself after her boisterous fight with Father De Leo gives rise to even more humor because of the sham politeness with which the salesman addresses her: "I see directly to merchants but when I stopped over there to have my car serviced, I seen you taking the air on the steps and I thought I would just drop over …"

Serafina's verbal assaults match her muscular defenses. At the start of the play, Serafina can counter the potion-selling Assunta's attempts to bring aphrodisiacs when they are not wanted by observing that it is not the sound of Venus that the old woman hears: "Naw, them ain't the star-noises. They're termites, eating the house up." To those who say she is improperly, scantily dressed, Serafina proclaims: "I'm dressed okay; I'm not naked!" Her invectives are charged by her shrewish wit. High school for her is as "high as that horse's dirt out there in the street!" Equally facile retorts face Jack Hunter, as Serafina, punning on his name, asks: "What are you hunting?—Jack?" But Serafina reveals her own narrow limits and calls down laughter on her head when she utters the understatement of the play: "But we are Sicilians, and we are not coldblooded." Serafina's claim to recognize religious denominations in body types is of course ridiculous. Yet she bounces back into control when she plays a game with Alvaro. When he tells her of his previous amorous mishap because he gave the girl a fake diamond (a zircon), Serafina responds that she too would have slammed the door in his face. Williams see the folly of his characters' lives and captures it in their dialogue as well.

With Alvaro, Williams invents another comic portrait in prose. Alvaro's description of this family and their petty vices sounds almost as if it came from Eudora Welty's pen: "One old maid sister, one feeble-minded grandmother, one lush of a pop that's not worth the powder it takes to blow him to hell.—They got the parchesi habit. They play the game of parchesi, morning, night, noon. Passing a bucket of beer around the table… ." Alvaro's wry detachment from his inherited handicaps fills out the picture of his family. He asks Serafina what in his heritage as the grandson of a village idiot he has to be thankful about: "What have I got to respect? The rock my grandmother slips on?" Williams is at his best in these comic vignettes, as the comments exchanged between Bessie and Flora well illustrate. The two prigs, eager for some sexual titillation, discuss one such prank that may promise pleasure: "I heard, I heard that the Legionnaires caught a girl on Canal Street! They tore the clothes off her and sent her home in a taxi!" Of course they disavow any interest in this nonsense, but they obviously enjoy it.

The Rose Tattoo also shows a mastery of other standard comic conventions, including physical deformities. Serafina's exaggerated ego and passion match the rotundity of her shape. Hers is a big, often stricken body, described as a "heavy, sagging bulk." Her hips have exceeded their girlish limits, suggesting a comparison to a "parading matador." Moving to the other side of the ring, Williams labels her a bull. She is like a "strange beast in a cage." All these remarks suggest that Serafina is like an animal in heat, her plump body always charging her enemiesPage 193  |  Top of Article or her lover. Her struggles with her girdle call attention to the incompatibility of her form and the restraint she seeks to impose on it. In these pantomimes, Serafina is both laughable buffoon and frustrated lover. The girdle represents an impediment to her passions; and the more she struggles, the funnier are her attempts. Nor has Williams spared other parts of her anatomy. Her hair is wild, greasy, always out of control like Serafina herself. No make-up, it seems, will help. Rosa's "cosmetic enterprise" does not improve her mother; it leaves her only with a "dazed look." Serafina's deprecatory gestures, signs of her ethnic background and feverish anger, also make her look ridiculous.

Her new lover, Alvaro, and his body are also exploited for comedy. This clown seems like an appropriate visitor to the carnival booth that is Serafina's house. He is as awkward as Serafina is accusatory. His ears stick out, he is short, and he hitches his shoulders—traits that certainly call attention to his comic torso. Williams refers to him as one of the "glossy young bulls" as if to emphasize his sexual powers. Alvaro is doubtless the bull in the dress shop. He is so clumsy that he drops everything from ice cubes to condoms. His trance after his first night with Serafina has "the pantomimic lightness, almost fantasy, of an early Chaplin comedy." Like the silent movie star, Alvaro finds mischief where he least expects it. He collides with Serafina's furniture and, finally, her daughter. Thinking he is raping her daughter, Serafina lunges at him, beating him all the way out of the house. Alvaro scurries around the house with "his shirttails out" much as Chaplin tries to evade the comic Furies hounding him.

The fight and the ensuing chase—the two most common and oldest comic tricks—fill up much of the action in The Rose Tattoo. Serafina tells Alvaro that "I had two fights on the street," but she underestimates the number of her quarrels. She battles with her daughter, jerking her away from the window; she does much the same with her clownish customers, except she chases them out of the house with a broom. She is forever fighting with the Strega whom she orders "Getta hell out of my yard!" Not even the clergy is exempt; with Father De Leo Serafina is "on the point of attacking him bodily" when he is rescued by her neighbors. On stage these incidents elicit laughter. Yet they also point to the turmoil inside Serafina. She is out of control, as her anger and the shrewishness arousing it demonstrate. One beating, though, which does not fit with the rest is that given Estelle early in the play by Serafina's neighbors. As she comes to see Rosario's body, "The bouquet of roses is snatched from her black-gloved hands and she is flailed with them about the head and shoulders." Though not comic, this incident precipitates and parallels other quarrels. Serafina's revenge lasts so long and is so violent that we automatically seek a cause: The community punishment of Estelle anticipates Serafina's punishment of the community. The difference between the two beatings shows how funny Serafina's struggles have become.

These quarrels often result in chases among objects with people falling down or being torn apart. The slapstick humor is transparent; the angrier characters become, the less successful are their attacks. But when Serafina gets into the act, all discord follows. At first she locks Rosa in the house; then a little later Rosa is locked out of it, having to run around outside. The neighborhood children often flee in panic when Serafina threatens them. In her fury, she pursues her customers, Bessie and Flora, turning over a table. The most obvious flight, however, is the goat chase, a sign of Serafina's passionate dilemma. Next comes Father De Leo, who is hounded by the widow. Then another goat chase. The pattern—chase after chase—characterizes the comic deception befalling Serafina and pinpoints Williams's hilarious if conventional source of comedy. The opportunities for improvisational comedy are unlimited here.

Alvaro's arrival brings more chases and even greater damage. His precursor, the salesman, signals further debasement for Serafina. The new product he offers "explodes in Serafina's face." The scene recalls Punch and Judy antics, but it prefigures the eruptions with Alvaro. While talking to him about vicious rumors, Serafina hurls a glass to the floor. Twice, in a few minutes, she explodes at Alvaro, both times chasing him for his life and crushing anything in her way. First, "she springs up and runs into the parlor. He pursues. The chase is grotesquely violent and comic. A floor lamp is overturned. She seizes the chocolate box and threatens to slam it into his face if he continues toward her." After a few calm moments, Serafina disrupts the peace when she hurls the phone to the floor. She even addresses the Blessed Virgin with "explosive gestures." The second time, the termagant flies at Alvaro "like a great bird, tearing and clawing at his stupefied figure" in retaliation for his bumping into Rosa. Alvaro is the butt; even when he walks he "topples over."

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But this rampage provides no release for Serafina; nor was it meant to. These chases only increase her frustration and rekindle the fires of her anger. For it is herself Serafina chases most often. She lunges, plunges and trounces all over; but, as Williams deftly points out, "she swiftly and violently whirls about in distraction." In desperation for clothes, she grabs at her dummies, one of which collapses. She tears things apart and threatens death to those who cross her. But she can have no honest release until she breaks the urn holding Rosario's ashes. All the other acts may be gratuitous, there for the laughs pure and simple, but when she "seizes the marble urn and hurls it violently into the furthest corner of the room," she finally can escape from the whirligig of the time past and confront the love Alvaro has to offer. She can break away from the comic captivity of her previous actions; she can stop being "dressed in the rags of a convict." Inserted among the other humorous acts, destruction of the urn may at first seem to be the result of Serafina's rage. But Williams has juxtaposed this act with other slapstick gestures to suggest how it differs from them and how, in effect, it points to the climax of the play. Within Williams' slapstick comedy is more serious business, but an appreciation of the relationship between events, however foolish, reveals the unity.

Among the most obvious but, surprisingly enough, least valued elements in The Rose Tattoo is the folk comedy. The passions of Rosa Gonzales, her revengeful father, and the symbolic cock fight of Summer and Smoke are examples of Williams' use of folk habits. Natives appear in both Camino Real and The Night of the Iguana. And insofar as his plantation caste in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof or Sweet Bird of Youth comprise separate, regional and rural subcultures, Williams reveals some knowledge of folk drama, twentieth-century style. Because of their obvious "foreignness" and importance, the Italians and Sicilians of The Rose Tattoo stand out most distinctly in Williams' use of folk materials. Their language, religion, and superstitions give the play its zest and shape its humor. Their music permeates the play, since a folk player appears at all the major breaks. Although living in the American South, Serafina and her neighbors lost not a whit of their native hopes and fears in steerage. They are close to the earth and to the animals and the children bred on it.

The lingo of these southern Europeans—the patois of the peasant—is liberally sprinkled throughout The Rose Tattoo, often adding to both the romantic and the humorous depiction of Serafina and her neighbors. Born of "contadini," Serafina becomes a "baronessa" even if her estate is no more than the sewing shop which is also her house. The Sicilian vocabulary makes Serafina's ire even more passionate and her love more earthy. Alvaro is a "cretino," a "buffone," or, even worse, a "maleducato" when he alarms her, but he is her "amore" at the end of the play; and her once intractable daughter is her "carissimo." The small house on Front Street, with the highway before it, is closer to Palermo than to New Orleans.

This language also reflects the many superstitions and taboos that prey so humorously on Serafina's psyche. Her goattending neighbor is always addressed as the Strega, the witch. So foolish is Serafina that she believes this spindly, hairy-legged creature possesses evil powers. She has "malocchio," an evil eye according to Serafina, though to the less impressionable Rosa it is only a cataract. When the Strega touches Rosa, Serafina at once supplies a folk cure—the girl must "wash [her] face with salt water and then throw the salt water away!" The Strega takes her place alongside Williams' other hags, comic and serious. She is part of the tradition which produced the blind woman selling flowers for the dead in A Streetcar Named Desire and Leona in Confessional; they serve as reminders impending doom. The Strega, moreover, infrequently serves as the play's narrator, pointing out comically Serafina's excesses—"The Wops are at it again"—while she and her rampaging goat are also grotesque. The "little procession" of her and the goat home really begins in her having let him loose in the first place. The superstitions associated with her must be judged against those of Assunta, the "fattuchiere" with her miraculous aphrodisiacs, and the more prosaic powers of the "imported Sicilian spumanti." The artifacts of this culture—goat, potions, wine—are among the leading stage symbols, however much they are abused through repetition and obviousness. From them Williams tries to create a comic (and folk) atmosphere; they are the legerdemain of his dramatic artifice.

Even the plot of The Rose Tattoo reads like a series of folk motifs, many of them documented in the Stith Thompson index. A duped widow who strikes out at all around her because of their mockery of her love finds a solution to her problems with another man who, in many ways, is the muscular though comic reincarnation of her deceased husband. At first, Serafina is attracted to Alvaro because, as she claims, he has "My husband's body,Page 195  |  Top of Article with the head of a clown!" Alvaro is the lover disguised as a fool, an old motif that Williams adopts for his own purposes by fusing suitor and fool into one role. Alvaro's disguise is laughable to Serafina who at first fails to see the love he brings.

The mysterious attraction is demonstrated through the rose symbolism. The rose appears in folk beliefs as a magical love-producing object. In fact, it is the talisman which often draws a lover to a woman, though Williams uses it to draw the woman to the man. The sexual bonds between Rosario and Serafina need little comment. But an even more interesting folk motif about roses is associated with Alvaro. Even though Serafina is already aroused by Alvaro, when he has the patronymic emblem of her first husband emblazoned on his chest, she finds Rosario Delle Rose again, or a more faithful though less attractive version of him. In essence, her "rose" has been transformed into a human being, a folk motif which is at the center of Serafina's discovery of self and the audience's demand for comedic harmony. Folklore also associates sexual powers with roses. By eating a rose, according to one superstition, a woman could conceive. Serafina's pregnancy by Rosario and her conception after sleeping with his humorous incarnation, the Tattooed Alvaro, recall the motif. As long as Serafina has a rose in her life, she does not need the sexual stimulation promised by Assunta's potion.

Much in The Rose Tattoo derives from the conventions of romantic comedy. Williams, who elsewhere is the frustrated romanticist or the rebellious puritan, here successfully gives the upper hand to the forces of love and nature. The fecundity of nature and man, and the desire, voiced by all romantic comedies, to unite every eligible female with every suitable man, frequently appears. Williams' pastoral setting—on the Gulf Coast between the magic city of New Orleans and the port of Mobile—displays a territory of passion and a land of sexual fulfillment. References to vegetation are numerous, and fruitful. The "Author's Production Notes" call for "palm trees," "tall canes with feathery fronds and a fairly thick growth of pampas grass." Rosario hauled bananas for the Romano Brothers; and Alvaro arrives with "a great golden bunch of bananas." The shape of this fruit leads Henry Popkin to see it as a phallic symbol, which seems appropriate for the context. Estelle Hohengarten's last name, which literally means a high garden, likewise suggests the fruitfulness of sex. The young Jack Hunter gives Rosa a bunch of roses for her graduation. And Serafina more than once breaks open a bottle of spumanti, highly suitable for the Bacchic entertainment serving as a preamble to love. Above the fertility of the earth shines Venus, "the female star with an almost emerald luster," and this star appears above Serafina's porch near the end of the play "still undimmed."

The surge toward fertility—and reproduction—is even stronger among the characters for whom this vegetation serves as a background. The play begins and ends with Serafina pregnant, once by her unfaithful husband and once by her foolish paramour, Alvaro, Serafina's rejection of the creative rhythms of life brings only reminders of how fruitful she should be. Father De Leo cautions her: "You are still a young woman. Eligible for—loving and—bearing again!" Later in the play, Alvaro tells her, in his awkward proposal, that his old maid sister wants nephews and nieces. Serafina can be happy only when she is loved and loving—whether it is every night with Rosario or not quite so often with Alvaro. Serafina's comic problem rests in acknowledging and triumphing over obstacles to love. She must ignore Estelle's illicit affairs and forgive Alvaro's fumbling attempts to use contraceptives.

If the specific pastoral location lends itself to romantic comedy, so too does the particular time of the action. It is June, near mid-summer, the time of love passion, fulfillment, weddings. It is a highly festive day on the calendar. Even the clowns Bessie and Flora are eager to see the Veterans Parade in New Orleans. But it is also a highly symbolic day—Rosa's graduation day and Serafina's as well. This occasion suggests Rosa's development, her commencement of sexual maturity. As Rosa tells Jack, "Just think. A week ago Friday—I didn't know boys existed!" It is her initiation, so to speak, receiving the Digest of Knowledge and Jack Hunter's pristine love on the same day. Their trip to Diamond Key (the place name suggesting some kind of engagement) in a sense charts their rite of passage into sexual maturity, soon to be concluded in a New Orleans hotel room. But on this very special day, Williams reminds his audience, they are the quintessence of young love. As Brooks Atkinson said in a New York Times review of the original production, their affair "has all the lyric rapture and sincerity of young poetry. As sheer writing, it is one of the finest things Mr. Williams has done."

But as in so many other romantic comedies, the young lovers are frustrated in meeting and marrying. Usually, a blocking figure, some pitiful andPage 196  |  Top of Article laughable parent, stands in their way. This is one dimension of Serafina's role. She is the obstacle to their love as well as a blatant contrast to it. It is hard to agree with Charles Brooks who sees Serafina as "the healthy one in the play" and Rosa as the "sentimental" embodiment of her mother's faults who "weakens an otherwise fine comedy." If nothing else demonstrated how wrong this view of Rosa is, Serafina's reactions to graduation day would certainly be enough. To the embittered widow, the festive day brings only anxiety and fear. She tries to spoil the holiday at first by locking her daughter up; the celebration, she thinks, is the public declaration of all the wrong things the high school did to Rosa. Even when Rosa is released through the intervention of Miss York [sic], Serafina still cannot participate in the ceremonies. She tries to attend, but she never does, for she is detained by her customers. And the music she hears does more to annoy than uplift her. When Rosa returns, elated by her honors, Serafina tries to fight off the future she brings with her diploma by saying: "Va bene.—Put it in the drawer with your father's clothes." Serafina hopes to keep Rosa in the stagnant past with the memory of Rosario. Rosa's youthful innocence and Rosario's faithfulness are tied together. Serafina does not want change. As she tells Jack Hunter: "Two weeks ago I was slapping her hands for scratching mosquito bites. She rode a bicycle to school. Now all at once—I've got a wild thing in the house." Graduation day has caused all of Rosa's problems and most of Serafina's trouble.

But Serafina, like so many other foolish parents in comedy, has problems both more serious and more comic than those she anticipates. She tries to protect Rosa from sexual abuse and dishonesty. Yet she herself is the victim of one of the oldest and funniest deceptions of romantic comedy. She has been cuckolded by Rosario and refuses, until shown otherwise, to believe it. In setting up a shrine to her late and beloved husband, she makes a mockery of her injunctions to Rosa not to trust a boy. Her religious fanaticism is, therefore, not without humor. Even her name suggests some comic duplicity. Not only does it imply her own nocturnally amorous ability ("sera fina"—"fine nights"), as Ruby Cohn has pointed out, but Williams may have had an actual Saint Seraphina in mind when he decided to name his heroine. The Catholic Encyclopedia states that Saint Seraphina was a virgin who "led a religious life in her parental home and was an example of piety, charity, mortification, and patience during a long serious illness…."

The Saints: A Concise Biographical Dictionary says she was associated with white violets, which "were found to be growing on the board on which she had lain." The widow Delle Rose is hardly a young, suffering virgin, and the contrast between her activities and those suggested by her holy namesake emphasize the folly of her devotion. Her wifely piety and the shrine she erects come in for constant comic attacks. Her house is noted more for brawls than prayers. In fact, at one point it even turns into a kind of "casa privata."

But it is her opposition to Rosa and Jack that makes Serafina a foe to love. Only when she relents and sends her daughter off with a blessing does she overcome her own ignorance and accept love herself. Breaking Rosario's urn and honoring Rosa's desire to love Jack indicate the change. She moves from hostile enemy to confidant, from a blocking figure to a woman who can see the world romantically. Serafina graduates by throwing off the bonds of the past, which enshackled her in buffoonery, and accepts the love and promise of the future.

The use of festivity in The Rose Tattoo derives from some of the major elements of romantic comedy. These include the so-called "green world" which the lovers inhabit, the opposition of the parent to their love, the easy comic deception of the parent, the hypocrisy of the parent's advice, and the holiday occasion giving rise to these opposing views. Unlike other comic butts, though, Serafina finally joins the lovers' cause. Williams' tone of satire is replaced by a strong and unmitigated sense that harmony will finally reign.

Much in The Rose Tattoo does not quite fit into the categories of vaudeville, farce, or romantic comedy. The serious moments of grief early in the play, the agony Serafina encounters in act two, and the union of Serafina and Alvaro at the end of the play amidst tears and laughter, defy comic label. Shifting tones and modes, many of them branded as Williams' faults, suggest that The Rose Tattoo is a tragicomedy, a genre that allows comedy full and varied play, even giving it the last word, while acknowledging the undercurrent of tragic love and pain.

The playwright's inability to write pure comedy throughout the play may explain why The Rose Tattoo is a tragicomedy. Williams may have explained his play as a Dionysian celebration, a dream of life's juices flowing through herbs, children, and lovers, but his preface on "The Timeless World ofPage 197  |  Top of Article the Play" turns the reader's eye in another direction. There Williams speculates about "plays in the tragic tradition" and discusses his own version of catharsis by which "our hearts are wrung by recognition and pity," a strange introduction for a saturnalian comedy. But perhaps these autobiographical assessments to some extent explain the work. Williams wants us to laugh and suffer with Serafina; she is both the dummy bride and the dummy widow. He wants "sentiment and humor in equal measure," an almost impossible feat in an age grotesquely divorcing the two and a difficult task for a playwright whose comedy usually reflects irredeemable futility. Still, as Henry Hewes recognized when seeing the 1966 revival, "we laugh at the ridiculousness of the events at the same time that we recognize the characters' agonizedly sincere involvement in them." Laughter may provide a better catharsis than either pity or fear.

Coarse, vulgar, foolish love exists alongside more noble kinds. The Strega, Estelle, and the taunting children get billing with Alvaro's shrewd recognition that Serafina laid her "heart in the marble urn with the ashes" and Rosa's advice that "Everybody is nothing until you love them," perhaps the topic sentence of the play. Serafina is likewise the nothing turned to everything, comic scapegoat and sympathetic heroine. Williams debases and enthrones her, often at the same time. She sinks into "comic desolation," and her appearance is at once "comic and shocking." Her former beauty is often mentioned, nowhere more poetically expressed than in Father De Leo's description of her as being "like a lady wearing a—piece of the—weather!"

But his view is challenged by her present appearance; she has become a hobgoblin scaring the children away. Williams seems to transfer some of his former heroines' problems to Serafina. Statues ("The Grotesque Children of The Rose Tattoo") has concluded that, "In terms of Williams's typical character deployment, Serafina is actually a direct descendant of Laura Wingfield in The Glass Menagerie and of Alma Winemiller in Summer and Smoke." Although Serafina lives in her own world, a victim of her own dreams, the affinity with Williams' earlier female characters is tenuous. Serafina is much more adaptable than, say, Blanche DuBois. Serafina throws off the deception in time to marry Alvaro. But it is too late for Blanche and her Alvaro (Mitch), whom she loses too soon and wants too late. In short, Serafina is a complex, often contradictory figure whose failures and successes in love combine farcical comedy with tragic implications. The rapid changes, especially after Alvaro reveals his rose tattoo in act three, are characteristic of and suitable for a tragicomedy.

Another major feature of tragicomedy is surprise, the unexpected resolution of the tragic dilemma that leads to a happy ending. Poorly used, this deus ex machina, the manipulation of events, can descend to cheap melodrama. But Williams has made some attempts to prepare his audiences, and characters, for the unexpected comedic resolution of events. The numerous references to the Blessed Mother, whom Serafina at first worships, then rebukes, then adores, suggest that these Sicilians feel providence can work out their problems. And Williams cautioned his crew and cast not to scoff at the "religious yearnings" these people feel. Everywhere, Serafina looks for signs. In sympathy with her, the audience should too. It is significant that the play begins and ends with Assunta saying that "it is impossible to tell me anything that I don't believe." The appearance of Alvaro is just that strange event which, on the face of it, seems incredible, for as he tells Serafina: "If strange things didn't happen, I wouldn't be here. You wouldn't be here. We wouldn't be talking together." Some have dismissed The Rose Tattoo as a contrived work, with Williams pulling all the strings in open view of the audience. And while there is some truth to the stricture that Alvaro is clumsy, and even stupid, his gift of love to Serafina does bring her out of despair and back into the world of love. Just as Serafina is filled with joy waiting for her first husband when the play begins, she is flowing over with excitement and love when running to meet her second husband as the play closes. That they rush to meet each other on the embankment signals their ascendancy over the neighborhood and the individuals who ridiculed and railed at them. Alvaro's strange and comic visit to Serafina's house results in the triumph of love.

The theme of time adds to both the tragic and the comic dimensions of the play. In his preface to The Rose Tattoo, Williams says that if time is arrested the events on stage acquire more tragic worth and contribute to the dignity of the characters. Were The Rose Tattoo pure tragedy, such observations might clearly apply. But the cessation of time for Serafina is both cause and effect of her comic debasement and our sympathy for her. When she is bound by time, or restlessly fights its pull, she is most pathetic and least likely to accept a new and fruitful life.

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The time of the play may be the present, but for Serafina it is, until Alvaro's successful wooing, always the past. Before she learns of Rosario's death, she rapturously recalls her previous nights of love. All time is measured by and included in her husband's embrace. "Each time is the first time with him. Time doesn't pass …, " she tells Assunta. But when Assunta reminds her of time's witness, the clock, Serafina has only contempt for it: "No, the clock is a fool. I don't listen to it. My clock is my heart and my heart don't say tick-tick; it says love-love!" The action reveals both how foolish and how sad Serafina's sense of time is when Estelle imposes another interpretation on the same hours: "Tomorrow's the anniversary of the day we met …, " she tells Serafina, who is of course unaware of Rosario's infidelity.

Serafina is not concerned with the future, despite reminders of time's passing. She tells Assunta that Rosario will no longer conceal drugs under his load of bananas. "Tonight is the last time he does it! Tomorrow he quits hauling stuff for the Brothers Romano." Tomorrow never comes, even though Williams manipulates stage time so as to make years pass between scenes three and four of act one. All of a sudden, it is "a June day, three years later." (One recalls the passing of sixteen years between acts in Shakespeare's tragicomedy The Winter's Tale.) Williams admits that "The diminishing influence of life's destroyer, time, must be somehow worked into the content of … [the] play," Serafina's struggle against it or imperception of it causes her grief. Williams' critical views are at odds with his dramaturgy, not an unusual conflict considering that sometimes his dramatic criticism fails to provide the most trusty guide to the work it discusses. When Serafina understands and appreciates time's changes, she is saved. Until then, she has only memories, views of the past which remove her from time's obligations and successes. As she tell Alvaro, "The memory of a love don't make you unhappy unless you believe a lie that makes it dirty." She clings to the lie because it protectively confines her in a beautiful past. She dwells on the social honors of the past. Rosario's uncle was a baron; she is a baronessa. But this claim brings only ridicule. She forestalls giving the mothers their daughters' dresses, promising them "Domani-domani-domani," even though, ironically enough, the dresses are done. In front of Bessie and Flora, she speaks of her previous work for them but spurns future jobs. When Serafina snarls at Flora that she is "late for the graduation of my daughter," the angular prig cruelly retorts: "You got plenty of time." Serafina has plenty of time except that all of it is recounted in her past sexual feats.

It is with Rosa that Serafina's distorted sense of time is more carefully treated. So harassed is Serafina that she never attends the graduation exercises; instead, she sits in the gloomy shadows of her house, surrounded by the manikins of both bride and widow, images of time past and time present. Ironically, the time-fettered Serafina buys Rosa a Bulova watch for her graduation present. But as Rosa leaves, the "gift still ungiven," the action means Serafina's sense of time cannot be transferred to her sexually unhindered daughter. That the watch does not work properly to begin with is further proof that this present represents Serafina's own limits; she has been frozen in time and must be unlocked from the past. Starnes has argued that when the watch does work, "time's passing and the transience of all meaning are now all she can see"; and that when the watch ceases ticking "Time has been arrested for her again, and is significant of Serafina's spiritual rebirth." This view runs counter to the unfolding of events, for it is only when Serafina gives up on the defective watch that she can run to Alvaro who offers her a new love which relieves her from her past folly.

In this role as time's new man, the new watchman of Serafina's heart, some of Alvaro's silliness vanishes, and much of his thematic significance is stressed. Though an awkward lothario, Alvaro plans for the future. Although his dreams are not as grand as Jim O'Connor's, Alvaro seeks security in the household of an older, financially stable and physically developed woman. But his youth and sexual prowess make him attractive to Serafina; he can offer her new hours of pleasure in bed while granting her wish not to be saddled with "some middle-aged man, not young, not full of young passion, but getting a pot belly on him and losing his hair and smelling of sweat and liquor." With Alvaro, Serafina's heart will again be in step with the fluidity and fruitfulness of time. Licking the chocolate from her fingers, Alvaro reminds Rosario's widow that "You're as old as your arteries, Baronessa. Now set back down. The fingers are now white as snow!" This ridiculous gesture is symbolically an act of purification, or a preview of sexual delights awaiting Serafina. When she protests his advances, Alvaro says, "Is it my fault you have been a widow too long?"; and he even agrees to "go out and come in the door again" if the day is wrong. Timing is important for Alvaro, for he isPage 199  |  Top of Article conscious of his past failures in love. Once Serafina exorcises the lie from her memory, comes back into time, and accepts Alvaro's youthful love, she can escape the sadness of the past and the follow of the present. Giving assent to the passing of time shifts characters and audience away from tragedy and into the joy of comedy.

The Rose Tattoo is not one of Williams' best plays, but it does show his ability to write fulfilling comedy, comedy which is indebted to a number of different dramatic traditions. From farce and slapstick humor, Williams takes the lively action of his play—fights, chases, one-liners, grotesque characterization. But he dignifies, or at least tones down, some of these antics by incorporating elements of romantic comedy. Rosa's attempts to run away with Jack Hunter are successful only when Serafina finds love herself. That recognition is placed within a tragicomic frame, allowing Williams to introduce more serious moments into the play. All this action is set within a folk community from which Williams derives further comedy. If the play never won critical approval, possibly Williams was too ambitious, too eager to make sure his play left no comic form untouched.

Source: Philip C. Kolin, "'Sentiment and Humor in Equal Measure': Comic Forms in The Rose Tattoo," in Tennessee Williams: A Tribute, edited by Jac Tharpe, University Press of Mississippi, 1977, pp. 93–106.

Leland Starnes

In the following essay, Starnes explores the regional and ethnic melange Williams mixes to give his characters their odd dialogue and bearing in The Rose Tattoo.

That realism should be the convention fundamental to the work of Tennessee Williams is altogether logical. Until his late adolescence, Williams had little opportunity to see any form of theater other than the American cinema, and this form, of course, is firmly grounded in the realistic approach. Even the external shape of Williams's theater shows especially clear evidence of this cinematic influence: a succession of episodes, "fade-outs" and "fade-ins," background music, gauze scrims, and expressive lights focussed to simulate "close-ups"—all devices immediately recognizable as film technique, itself a more poetic kind of realism.

Often clearly aspiring to the conditions of poetry, Williams creates for himself an advantage which is not always available to other dramatists who start from the realistic or naturalistic base: like Synge and O'Casey, he puts his words into the mouths of an essentially imaginative people who speak in the rhythms and colorful imagery of a region favorable to poetry. Even more to the point for our present subject, by staging his dramas in a realm just so much apart from "average" American life as the deep South and by having his characters speak in the distinctive language of that realm apart, Williams succeeds in distancing his plays from the purely realistic mode to a degree sufficient to justify and disguise a certain characteristic exaggeration and distortion of reality which permeates his entire canon. Under the speech of most of his characters there runs the faint but unmistakable thorough bass of grotesque folk comedy. The tone provided by this suggestion of the comic folk tale varies according to Williams's intention, and, accordingly, the success of its effect depends upon the amount of distance he would have us put between the characters and ourselves.

Williams's opening scene in Orpheus Descending, for example, is an excellent study of his use of regional elements for these ends; we have only to examine the craftsmanship in this Prologue to an imperfect play to perceive how ingeniously (and how meticulously) this restless perfectionist has always gone about the business of constructing the artistic reality he thought indispensable to the coming to life of his vividly theatrical people.

The set represents in nonrealistic fashion a general drygoods store and part of a connecting 'confectionery' in a small Southern town … Merchandise is represented very sparsely and it is not realistic … But the confectionery, which is seen partly through a wide arched door, is shadowy and poetic as some inner dimension of the play.

Then immediately, before this nonrealistic background, we hear language of such color that we realize the realm in which our action will take place is indeed very much apart.

DOLLY. Pee Wee!

BEULAH. Dawg!

DOLLY. Cannonball is comin' into th' depot!

BEULAH. You all git down to th' depot an' meet that train!

Pee Wee and Dog, "heavy, red-faced men," verify the initial comic impression with a gag line as they "slouch through … in clothes that are too tight for them … and mud-stained boots."

PEE WEE. I fed that one-armed bandit a hunnerd nickels an' it coughed up five.

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Julie Waters and Matyelok Gibbs in a 1991 theatrical production of The Rose Tattoo

Julie Waters and Matyelok Gibbs in a 1991 theatrical production of The Rose Tattoo

DOG. Must have hed indigestion.

As Pee Wee and Dog go out the door, Beulah begins the play's exposition:

I wint to see Dr. Johnny about Dawg's condition. Dawg's got sugar in his urine again, an as I was leavin' I ast him what was the facks about Jabe Torrance's operation in Mimphis.

When a few lines later Beulah begins her monologue, which "should be treated frankly as exposition," Williams says, "spoken to audience … she comes straight out to the proscenium, like a pitchman. This monologue should set the nonrealistic key for the whole production." The exposition is thus delivered in the idiom of folk comedy and takes advantage of the comedic possibilities in its theatricalist style. Beulah first describes with grim relish the circumstances of Papa Romano's death; as she expounds at some length upon her convictions concerning the faithlessness of most marriages, her manner is that of back-fence gossip. But as she thus prepares a mordantly ironic background for our first view of Lady and Jabe Torrance, the tone of the scene modulates from what at first appeared to be cracker-barrel comedy to the extreme grotesque.

BEULAH. Then one of them—gits—cincer or has a—stroke or somethin'?—The other one—

DOLLY.—Hauls in the loot?

The comic grotesquery of these women is obviously essential to Williams's initial exposition of both characters and situation. As a kind of comic chorus, they provide not only environmental context in terms of which we are to interpret events, but, in their comic hypocrisy, an objective view of both the appearance and the reality of the principal characters and their predicament as well. When Jabe Torrance, mortally ill with cancer, returns from the hospital they greet him with mendacity the ironic significance of which the audience immediately perceives.

BEULAH. I don't think he's been sick. I think he's been to Miami. Look at that wonderful color in his face.

DOLLY. I never seen him look better in my life!

BEULAH. Who does he think he's foolin'? Ha ha ha!—not me!

There are two groups of women, and two women in each group. Williams even arranges theirPage 201  |  Top of Article lines so as to verify the comic effect he intends us to see in this visual repetition by having them echo each other's words in almost music-hall style.

BEULAH. Lady, I don't suppose you feel much like talking about it right now but Dog and me are so worried.

DOLLY. Pee Wee and me are worried sick about it.

LADY. About what?

BEULAH. Jabe's operation in Memphis. Was it successful?

DOLLY. Wasn't it successful? …

SISTER. Was it too late for surgical interference?

EVA. Wasn't it successful?

BEULAH. Somebody told us it had gone past the knife.

DOLLY. We do hope it ain't hopeless.

EVA. We hope and pray it ain't hopeless. (All their faces wear faint, unconscious smiles.)

We are reminded of T. S. Eliot's similar handling of verbal repetition in The Cocktail Party when Julia tells the story of Lady Klootz and her son who could hear the cry of bats. But Williams's use of the device here, of course, is probably intended as comic suggestion of repetition as it is usually heard in the classic chorus.

It is obvious that Williams is nowadays more concerned than ever with this matter of distance between his characters and his audience. The recent unfortunate production of Slapstick Tragedy and Williams's own remarks about his intentions in that work indicate that he is in the process of experimentation and is therefore, we should hopefully say, in transition. Some critics have gone so far as to argue that Slapstick Tragedy should not have been given professional production. The two short plays are indeed more clearly akin to thumbnail sketches than to finished canvasses, and each has been written with baffling incompatibilities of content and style. But whatever the aesthetic shortcomings of this latest effort, we are forced to observe in Slapstick Tragedy that Williams again instinctively seeks the freedom from the strictures of photographic realism that grotesque comedy allows him, and his natural antic gifts have always been such that we should be encouraged to believe that it is within the realms of such comedy that he may eventually find the new mode he seeks. The Rose Tattoo, which was first produced in 1951, endures as a model of Williams's stylistic integrity, and it is appropriate that such a play should have been chosen for successful revival in the 1966–67 season at New York's City Center. In this surprisingly profound play, Williams of course again resorted to the creation of his own realm and to the writing of the language of that world, both of which provided aesthetic distance for the characters inhabiting that realm and explained or justified their exaggerated behavior. His context was the South again—the Gulf Coast between New Orleans and Mobile—and it was, moreover, an Italian community within that area. We were thus twice removed from "normal" reality, and Williams worked with extraordinary effectiveness within the self-imposed limitations of that reality.

In production, it would be unwise if not impossible to attempt to minimize the distancing effect that the national or regional characteristics of Williams's central characters should have upon an audience. This ethnic identity is manifestly Williams's keystone for the structure of his characters, and in The Rose Tattoo he stresses it repeatedly and purposefully in every scene of the play:

JACK. Mrs. Delle Rose, I guess that Sicilians are emotional people …

BESSIE. I'm a-scared of these Wops.

THE STREGA … They ain't civilized, these Sicilians. In the old country they live in caves in the hills and the country's run by bandits.

Williams wants us to see clearly that he is writing about a special people with a special set of given circumstances: "they ain't civilized"; they are "wild," "emotional," "childlike," and they do everything "with all the heart." So it is, then, that our introduction to Serafina Delle Rose takes place in "an interior that is as colorful as a booth at a carnival." Indeed, we cannot avoid noticing the extreme and vivid uses of color; such Van Gogh audacities are apropos for the broader statement that Williams wants to make. Moreover, the set in which Serafina sits is scarcely more colorful than the lady herself. As vivid as a circus poster, she

Page 202  |  Top of Article

looks like a plump little Italian opera singer in the role of Madame Butterfly. Her black hair is done in a high pompadour that glitters like wet coal. A rose is held in place by glittering jet hairpins. Her voluptuous figure is sheathed in pale rose silk. On her feet are dainty slippers with glittering buckles and French heels … She sits very erect, … her ankles daintily crossed and her plump little hands holding a yellow paper fan on which is painted a rose. Jewels gleam on her fingers, her wrists and her ears and about her throat.

This, it scarcely need be said, is exaggeration. It is enthusiastic—and not actually terribly extreme—intensification of an already intense person for the purposes of vivid theatrical examination of her being. Quite obviously, the actress entrusted with the performance of such a role should have at least a working knowledge of the bigger, more "operatic" styles of acting and should not, as was unfortunately the case with Maureen Stapleton in both New York productions, be circumscribed by an earthbound naturalism which allows few if any glimpses of the theatrical size ultimately attainable in this characterization. While the Serafina Williams describes has not actually left the realm of naturalism, those characteristics which mark her individuality are stressed to just such a degree that they verge upon or actually become both theatricalist and comically grotesque; and by this preliminary visual presentation of the character and the realm she inhabits, we are alerted to expect the comic incongruity which ensues in her subsequent actions.

And so it is that our introduction to Alvaro Mangiacavallo, Serafina's thematic antagonist, is accomplished in a scene which borders upon farce and which makes heavy use of national characteristic for comedic effect. Alvaro, sobbing in pain and frustration because he has been kicked in the groin during a fight with an irate salesman, flees into the house to hide his shame, and Serafina, weeping in sympathy, offers to repair his torn jacket. The scene is audacious in its comedy—comedy which is, moreover, ingenious as expositional device—as the two characters continue a conversation which would probably be unexceptional if it were not for the fact that each of them is shaking with sobs. "Stop crying so I can stop crying," Serafina says. "I am a sissy," says Alvaro. "Excuse me. I am ashame." At some point in our laughter, however, it might occur to us to ask if perhaps the exaggeration of national or folk characteristic had not been carried to too great an extreme and whether we might have passed altogether into the realm of the stage Italian and from thence into mindless farce. The question, surely, is not as primly academic as might at first appear, as upon its answer depend our interpretation of this play and our evaluation of the spiritual worth of these persons. Critical reaction to the play at its first appearance in 1951 was such as to provide reason to conclude—at that time, at any rate—that Williams's work here was at least uneven or uncertain. For example, Margaret Marshall, reviewing the play in The Nation, said that "in the second act the serious mood quickly evaporates; and the proceedings descend into cheap farce which must be seen to be believed. The absurd and the vulgar contend for place …" Kenneth Tynan, always a great admirer of Williams, found "the play's complex structure—short scenes linked by evocative snatches of music—too poetic for its theme," and George Jean Nathan simply said that the play was "sensational sex melodrama, pasted up with comedy relief …" Such critics at that time, then, asked whether Williams had not indeed drawn his ironies and exaggerations with too bold a stroke in this play. They apparently assumed that to push the protagonist so far into comic or grotesque incongruity as to make this incongruity his or her dominant dramatic value was to risk making the character so childlike or of such an inferior level of sensibility as to become a target for the destructive laughter of superiority. A playwright of Williams's genre is limited by his protagonist's perception, they believed, and so, then, is the force of his play. The Rose Tattoo was thought by many at that time to be a less significant play—"just a comedy"—because Williams had resorted to farcical exaggeration which all but destroyed any serious thematic intent. Some writers went so far as to deny the probability of any really new or valuable insights into the condition of human suffering in the "vulgar farce" of "childminded Sicilians," and others questioned the likelihood that "the psychological aberrations of the universe can be quickly settled on one big bed." We can enjoy Serafina, they implied, and we can even sympathize with her on occasion, but we cannot see her as representative of anything significant in reality after having laughed at her shenanigans for three acts.

It is interesting and even a little amusing to compare such reactions with those of the writers who received the play with surprised enthusiasm when it was revived at City Center last season. Laughter which had in 1951 been deplored as destructive or emblematic of cheap farce was now seen to be either a mark of the play's timelessness or the work of a skillful director who had managed through perceptive reinterpretation to bring the playPage 203  |  Top of Article up to date. Walter Kerr decided that the play had "outwitted time. Outwitted 16 years, anyway, and likely to improve the score further." Henry Hewes, writing for the Saturday Review, perhaps best exemplified this new vision of the play when he said that it "probably was not Mr. Williams's intention to write The Rose Tattoo as a grotesque comedy, but that is what this new presentation seems, and that is why it appears not the least bit dated." Hewes said, moreover, that to emphasize the grotesquery, the director, Milton Katselas, concentrated on creating the "wild and irrational" surroundings for Williams's fable, and, as a result, "everything that happens is ironic—so that we laugh at the ridiculousness of the events at the same time that we recognize the characters' agonizedly sincere involvement in them." And yet, in 1951, as Williams waited for his play to open at the Martin Beck Theatre, he had said, "I always thought of [The Rose Tattoo] as funny in a grotesque sort of way"; and in his famed Preface to the play he had specified grotesquery or "a certain foolery" as the probable stylistic solution for the playwright who would satisfy the peculiar conditions laid down for him by his modern, skeptical audiences.

What Hewes and a surprising number of critics both in 1951 and in 1966 have failed to realize is that comedy is and always has been an essential part of the typical Williams drama. A certain amount of laughter may, or indeed must, be at the expense of the Williams protagonist, as it is clear that Williams has always meant us to see that even the noblest human being is often guilty of ridiculous incongruity and is thereby laughable. Most of the modern writers—certainly those of the so-called Absurdist genre—find that they have to reduce the protagonist (when there is one) to imperception in order to make the point they want to make. The concomitant feeling of superiority toward the protagonist in such case is, we recognize, a necessary part of Absurdist technique: we must be kept aloof and at a distance from the characters, because their actions and not the characters themselves are the important things, and our involvement with them as people would serve to establish the existence of values or of a coherence that the play was written to deny. But Williams does not typically concern himself with the faceless protagonist of Absurdist or surrealist farce. In The Rose Tattoo, he clearly wanted to acknowledge and accept the limitations imposed upon him by characters of "instinctive"—rather than rational—sensibility, and to see this condition as altogether fundamental to his design. "Our purpose," he said, "is to show these gaudy, childlike mysteries with sentiment and humor in equal measure …" In any but the most superficial reading of The Rose Tattoo, one cannot help but be struck with the frequency of references concerning the childlike qualities of these characters, and most particularly of Serafina and Alvaro. "Their fumbling communication," Williams says, "has a curious intimacy and sweetness, like the meeting of two lonely children for the first time." Serafina, having climbed upon a chair to reach a bottle of wine, "finds it impossible to descend … Clasping the bottle to her breast, she crouches there, helplessly whimpering like a child." The acceptance of the childlike characteristics of Williams's characters is not only fundamental to their proper interpretation and performance, but leads as well—almost syllogistically—to comprehension of the symbolism of the play, and from thence, as in any poetic work of integrity, back again to even deeper understanding of the characters. Having once conceded that most of Williams's Romantic symbolism is appropriately akin to association psychology one finds the logic of this statement somewhat nearer to hand.

Thus, by way of penetrating Williams's almost Wordsworthian concept of the importance of the childlike element in Serafina and Alvaro, it is, strangely enough, most pertinent to consider first the significance that he would have us see in the Strega's black goat. Normally an easy "symbol" of sexual desire, the goat makes a significant appearance to objectify Serafina's emotional situation at several pivotal points in the action—once, for example, when Rosario's mistress, Estelle Hohengarten, appears to order the silk shirt; again after Alvaro and Serafina have discovered their attraction for each other in Act II; and as an offstage bleat when Serafina makes her desperate assignation with Alvaro in Act III. The device as staged is grotesquely comic, and each time the goat escapes to run wild in Serafina's backyard the incident begins in farcical pandemonium and evolves finally into a ludicrous parody of a Bacchic procession, with a "little boy … clapping together a pair of tin pan lids … wild cries of children … the goat's bleating … and farther back follows the Strega … her grey hair hanging into her face and her black skirts caught up in one hand, revealing bare feet and hairy legs."

Having once established an aural connection between the goat and the "wild cries of children," Williams goes on to introduce these child sounds almost as choric amplification at subsequent points when something happens to stir Serafina's wildPage 204  |  Top of Article passion for Rosario. Alvaro unwraps the rose silk shirt, and the cries are heard again; Serafina suffers the desperate urge to smash the urn containing her husband's ashes as a little boy's cries parallel her excitement outside the window. And at the end of Act II when Serafina lifts her eyes to the sky and begs the dead Rosario's forgiveness for believing the "lie" about his infidelity, "a little boy races into the yard holding triumphantly aloft a great golden bunch of bananas. A little girl pursues him with shrill cries. He eludes her … The curtain falls."

Obviously then, the connection between children and goat is more than merely aural. For Williams, their significance is reciprocal and complementary; they are altogether thematic, and as lyrical devices they symbolize or objectify in tangible form both "lyric and Bacchantic impulses" which Williams sees embodied in their purest crystalline state in his Sicilians. The Rose Tattoo, he said,

is the Dionysian element in human life, its mystery, its beauty, its significance … Although the goat is one of its most immemorial symbols, it must not be confused with mere sexuality. The element is higher and more distilled than that. Its purest form is probably manifested by children and birds in their rhapsodic moments of flight and play … it is the limitless world of the dream. It is the fruit of the vine that takes earth, sun, and air and distills them into juices that deprive men not of reason but of a different thing called prudence.

Serafina and Alvaro are Italian, and, for Williams, "the Italians [reveal] a different side of human nature than any I [have] ever known. I think Italians are like our Southerners without their inhibitions. They're poetic, but they don't have any Protestant repressions. Or if they do have any, their vitality is so strong, it crashes through them. They live from the heat."

It follows, then, that Williams's portraits of these Sicilians—and particularly that of Serafina—will reveal them as vivid embodiments of these impulses. These are Serafina's special set of given circumstances; she is at the outset, like Williams's Southerner, a more intense person than most, a creature from a realm apart. And, again like Williams's Southerner, being thus unique, she excites Williams with motivation and material for the creation of another intensely theatrical person. As almost pure distillation of those elements of human character most meaningful to Williams she will necessitate from him a bolder stroke of the brush, a more daring use of color, a stronger contrast of light and shade—or, to vary J. L. Styan's metaphor, a wider swing of the pendulum of dramatic balance on both sides of the neutral reality. And as crystallization of those grotesque human characteristics more typically instinctive than rational, more visceral than cerebral, and more childlike than mature, she will inevitably commit certain of the comic incongruities usually attributed to children and will be "criticized" accordingly by the corrective laughter of her "civilized" audiences. Our laughter at Serafina, then, is as Williams would have it: in our very act of laughing we are to verify her freedom from "prudence," "empiric evidence," and "civilization." In the first few pages of the play, this Dionysian freedom is acknowledged immediately as we sense her gusty vitality and her intensely sexual devotion to her husband; we perceive that she is aware of life, that she reaffirms life and rejoices in it, and in so doing she prepares us for laughter that is free and full. Then, as we, the audience, realize that we see a reality above and beyond her limited or childish conception of it, we naturally react to her at first in much the same way that we respond to persons we recognize as being of inferior sensibility; as we realize that she in effect inhabits a world that is out of step or incongruous with "the everyday man's" reality, we criticize her with the laughter of superiority and consider her as by definition comic. Henri Bergson would probably have described her behavior as "mechanical" as she ignores or is unable to recognize fact as it appears before her but rather chooses to continue to act upon the conventions and maxims peculiar to her world, even as they are disproved or denied:

JACK. It is a hard thing to say. But I am—also a—virgin …

SERAFINA. What? No. I do not believe it.

JACK. Well, it's true though …

SERAFINA. You? A sailor?

SERAFINA. What are you? Catholic?

JACK. Me? Yes, ma'am, Catholic.

SERAFINA. You don't look Catholic to me!

And, of course, Serafina's vehement condemnation of her daughter's passion for the young sailor is in ironic—and laughable—contrast to her own concern with sexuality. We soon realize, of course, that this comes about because of the fact that in her own world of intense sexuality she is led to see the same exaggeration in her daughter's world, and she in effect flails out at chimeras which are largely of her own making. Moreover, the incongruous contrast between the enormity of the effort she expends and the size of the problem with which she isPage 205  |  Top of Article dealing—what Freud would term the "quantitative contrast"—causes her to be seen as a grotesquely comic character. Thus, in her eyes, no sailor, regardless of how young, can be innocent; tight trousers must inevitably signify sexual license; a spring dance at a high school is manifestly given for purposes of sensual indulgence; and a school picnic chaperoned by teachers becomes a maenadic orgy: "The man-crazy old-maid teachers!—They all run wild on the island!" So Serafina forces the young man to pledge chastity while kneeling before the shrine to the Virgin—a shrine which she herself has dedicated to sexual love.

The scene at the beginning of Act III in which we see Serafina struggling frantically, "with much grunting," to get the girdle from around her knees before Alvaro arrives is almost pure vaudeville; by Joseph Wood Krutch's definition, our protagonist is here reduced to the status of a clown. Speaking of the typical farcical character, Krutch says that "the climax of our amusement coincides with the climax of his discomfort, or worse. The chief personages in farce usually are—or are put in a situation where they seem to be—clowns. And a clown is a butt, or victim. In high comedy we usually are laughing at ourselves; in farce, at somebody else." But more to the point of our present discussion—in allowing us this glimpse of Serafina, Williams achieves another of his bold critical strokes whereby we are made to scrutinize the protagonist from the objective viewpoint that such grotesque comedy provides.

But to make endless catalogue of Serafina's comic incongruities would profit us but little; most of them could be analyzed, if analysis were needed, by reference to the "quantitative contrast" idea, or some version thereof, and to the Freudian "release of inhibitive energy." In any event, the resulting laughter is gratifying to Williams, as it is in all senses Dionysian. However, the essential fact concerning this laughter has yet to be said. It is simply that having criticized Serafina to such an extent and from such a superior vantage point, we end by retaining a clear image of her dignity and worth: she remains, when all is said and done, a person of some stature and significance. Of course, it must be said that it is altogether indicative of Williams's success in this play that we are able to say of Serafina, after having laughed long and loudly at her, that we recognize her genuine and sizable capacity for love, and that it is in very point of fact this same extraordinary characteristic which is the significant element in her downfall. It is, in a sense, her hamartia, her tragic flaw.

In recognizing Serafina's special stature in this respect, we perceive in her being a universal in which we all share, and we sympathize. Even as we are led to laughter by Serafina's extremities of behavior in her loss of control after Rosario's death—

[Rosa] crouches and covers her face in shame as Serafina heedlessly plunges out into the front yard in her shocking déshabille, making wild gestures … As Serafina paces about, she swings her hips in the exaggeratedly belligerent style of a parading matador.

—we recognize an extremity which is as peculiar to tragedy as it is to comedy. Even as we are made to laugh by the incongruity of her actions—or, as by them we see our own standards of "normal," adult reality reaffirmed—we see the intensity of the grief which alone could cause such behavior; in our very act of laughing we seem almost heartlessly—but how effectively—to verify the extent of this visceral being's feeling. Hers is a love and a grief so great they threaten her destruction; by this fact alone she suggests a greatness, and in that tragic flaw is centered the principal tension of The Rose Tattoo.

With Rosario's death, Serafina's predictable reaction was to attempt to continue her worship in as close an approximation to its former pattern as possible. In so doing, of course, she chose to continue in blind devotion to her dead husband and became a prisoner of her own self-deception. Instead of association with living beings, she chose the motionless dummies of the dressmaker; instead of love bestowed on the living, she chose adoration before the ashes of the dead; and instead of actuality and engagement in the present, she chose memory and nostalgia for the past. It is interesting, then, to note that in speaking thus of Serafina, we find her to be another of Williams's variations of the "weak, beautiful people who give up with such grace," and around whom he structures his every play. In terms of Williams's typical character deployment, Serafina is actually a direct descendent of Laura Wingfield in The Glass Menagerie and of Alma Winemiller in Summer and Smoke. But, on the other hand, like Blanche DuBois, she is an active protagonist rather than a passive, and to her in turn will come thematic antagonists—like Alvaro—who will contest her view of herself and who will thereby provide the means for a gradual, cumulative view of her character.

In our admission that Serafina's remarkable capacity for love triumphs over her more comedic aspects—or, rather, by having us concede that those very childlike characteristics which make her comic also give Serafina stature—Williams succeeds in having us reaffirm for him that fact about humanPage 206  |  Top of Article relationships which is woven somehow into most of the work of this avowed Romanticist and which, however phrased, expresses what remains for him man's closest approximation to a dependable absolute: the human being transcends his own pathetic insignificance only when he puts himself aside to love another person. In loving another, Williams would have us see in The Rose Tattoo, man most nearly succeeds in conquering the ultimate enemy of all significance, time. Before Rosario's death, Serafina says of her life with him:

Time doesn't pass … My clock is my heart and my
heart don't say tick-tock, it says love-love!

At the end of Act I, however, after Rosario has been killed, Serafina winds her daughter's watch before her shrine, and glaring fiercely at the watch she pounds her chest three times and says:

Tick-tick-tick! … Speak to me, Lady!
Oh, Lady give me a sign!

With love gone from her life, time's passing and the transience of all meaning are now all she can see.

Then, at the end of the play, when Serafina has re-entered life through the discovery of new love with Alvaro,

she holds the watch to her ear again. She shakes it a
little, then utters a faint, startled laugh.

Time has been arrested for her again, and Williams, the supreme Romanticist, would have us see the stopping of her daughter's watch as significant of Serafina's spiritual rebirth.

Love is itself unmoving,
Only the cause and end of movement,
Timeless …

Source: Leland Starnes, "The Grotesque Children of The Rose Tattoo," in Modern Drama, No. 12, February 1970, pp. 357–69.

SOURCES

Bigsby, C. W. E., A Critical Introduction to Twentieth-Century American Drama, Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Hawkins, William, Review of The Rose Tattoo, in the New York World-Telegram and Sun, February 5, 1951, p. 10.

Kolin, Philip C., "The Family of Mitch," in Magical Muse: Millennial Essays on Tennessee Williams, edited by Ralph F. Voss, University of Alabama Press, 2002.

——, "'Sentiment and Humor in Equal Measure': Comic Forms in The Rose Tattoo," in Tennessee Williams: A Tribute, University Press of Mississippi, 1977.

Marshall, Margaret, Review of The Rose Tattoo, in the Nation, Vol., CLXII, February 17, 1951, 161–62.

FURTHER READING

Grant, Michael, Myths of the Greeks and Romans, New American Library, 1962.

Grant's classic presentation and discussion of central ancient Greco-Roman myths and religious practices includes commentary about the god Dionysus.

Mangione, Jerre, and Ben Morreale, La Storia: Five Centuries of the Italian American Experience, HarperCollins, 1992.

As the title of this work suggests, its authors consider the history of Italians in the North American region from the days of European exploration to the present.

Martin, Robert A., Critical Essays on Tennessee Williams, G.K. Hall, 1997.

Martin provides students of Williams with an excellent source book containing contemporaneous reviews of the plays, critical essays on individual plays, and essays that discuss Williams's work as a whole.

Voss, Ralph F., ed., Magical Muse: Millennial Essays on Tennessee Williams, the University of Alabama Press, 2002.

The set of essays that make up this recent volume covers topics of interest to readers of Williams ranging from the literary to the biographical.

Williams, Tennessee, Memoirs, Doubleday & Company, 1975.

Memoirs is Williams's engaging autobiography.

Source Citation   (MLA 8th Edition) 
"The Rose Tattoo." Drama for Students, edited by David A. Galens, vol. 18, Gale, 2003, pp. 176-206. Gale Virtual Reference Library, http%3A%2F%2Flink.galegroup.com%2Fapps%2Fdoc%2FCX3420200020%2FGVRL%3Fu%3Dpoul45153%26sid%3DGVRL%26xid%3Db73b6cf9. Accessed 22 Jan. 2019.

Gale Document Number: GALE|CX3420200020

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  • Anger
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 192-194
  • Beauty
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 178-180
      • 18: 183
      • 18: 185
  • Classicism
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 183
  • Comedy
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 184
      • 18: 186-188
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 193-197
      • 18: 199-203
      • 18: 205
  • Cruelty
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 193-194
      • 18: 198
  • Death
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 178-179
      • 18: 184
  • Drama
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 183
      • 18: 186-188
      • 18: 190-192
      • 18: 194
      • 18: 199
      • 18: 203
  • Emotions
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 186
      • 18: 189
      • 18: 192
      • 18: 201
      • 18: 203
  • Exposition
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 200
  • Farce
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 190-191
      • 18: 196
      • 18: 199
      • 18: 202-203
      • 18: 205
  • Film
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 186-187
  • God
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 183-184
  • Grotesque
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 194
      • 18: 197
      • 18: 199-205
  • Happiness and Gaiety
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 195
      • 18: 197
      • 18: 199
  • Hatred
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 192
      • 18: 196
      • 18: 198
  • Heroism
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 183
      • 18: 196-197
  • History
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 185
  • Hope
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 194
      • 18: 196
  • Humanity
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 183
  • Humor
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 183-184
      • 18: 187-197
      • 18: 199-205
  • Idolatry
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 183
  • Imagery and Symbolism
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 188-190
      • 18: 194-195
      • 18: 198-199
      • 18: 204
  • Irony
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 200
      • 18: 202-204
  • Life and Death
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 184
  • Love and Passion
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176-180
      • 18: 183-185
      • 18: 187-199
      • 18: 203-206
  • Masculinity
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 178
      • 18: 183-184
  • Music
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 186-189
      • 18: 199
      • 18: 201-202
  • Myths and Legends
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 183-184
  • Naturalism
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 199
      • 18: 202
  • Nature
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 184-185
      • 18: 188-189
      • 18: 195
  • 1940s
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 185-187
  • North America
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 185-187
  • Perception
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 199-200
      • 18: 202
      • 18: 204-205
  • Persecution
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 196-197
  • Plants
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 192-195
      • 18: 198
  • Pride
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 183
  • Pride
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 178-179
      • 18: 183
      • 18: 185
  • Primitivism
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 185
  • Psychology and the Human Mind
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 194
  • Race
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 185-187
  • Realism
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 199
      • 18: 201
  • Recreation
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 195
  • Religion and Religious Thought
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 179
      • 18: 183-184
      • 18: 188-189
      • 18: 192-194
      • 18: 196-197
  • Revenge
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 193-194
  • Sex and Sexuality
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 176
      • 18: 180
      • 18: 183-185
      • 18: 188
      • 18: 191-193
      • 18: 195-196
      • 18: 198
      • 18: 202-205
  • Sports and the Sporting Life
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 192
      • 18: 195-196
      • 18: 199
  • Storms and Weather Conditions
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 188-189
  • Tragicomedy
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 196-198
  • Trust
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 191
      • 18: 195-196
  • Understanding
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 203
  • War, the Military, and Soldier Life
    • The Rose Tattoo:
      • 18: 185-186