SELECTED BOOKS: Seth Jones; or, The Captives of the Frontier (New York: Beadle, 1860; Lon¬ don: Beadle, 1861); revised as Seth Jones of New Hampshire (New York: Dillingham, 1907); The Life and Times of Christopher Carson, the Rocky Mountain Scout and Guide (New York & Lon¬ don: Beadle, 1861); Irona; or, Life on the Southwest Border (New York: Beadle, 1861; London: Beadle, 1863?); Oonomoo, the Huron (New York: Beadle, 1862; Lon¬ don: Beadle, 1864); The Hunters; or, Life on the Mountain and Prairie, as Latham C. Carleton (New York: Beadle, 1863); Kent, the Ranger; or, The Fugitives of the Border (New York: Beadle, 1863); republished as The Ranger (London: Beadle, 1864); Squatty Dick; or, The Short-Legged Hunter, as Captain Latham C. Carleton (New York: Munro, 1863); The Lion-Hearted Hunter; or, The Captives of the Wyan- dottes. A Tale of the Mahoning, as Captain La¬ tham C. Carleton (New York: Munro, 1864); Peleg Smith; or, Adventures in the Tropics, as Boynton Belknap (New York: Beadle, 1866); Kit Carson, the Scout, as J. H. Randolph (New York: Beadle, 1868); Burt Bunker, the Trapper. A Tale of the North-West Hunting-Grounds, as Charles E. LaSalle (New York: Beadle & Adams, 1870); The Huge Hunter; or, The Steam Man of the Prairies (New York: Beadle 8c Adams, 1870); Old Zip; or, The Cabin in the Air. A Story of the Sioux Country, as Bruin Adams (New York: Beadle & Adams, 1871); The Scalp King; or, The Squaw Wife of the White Avenger, as Ned Hunter (New York: Frank Starr, 1872); Wolf-Fang Fritz; or, The Mad-Grisly Slayer, as Captain Marcy Hunter (New York: Dewitt, 1873); re¬ published as Oregon Sol; or, Nick Whiffles's Boy Spy (New York: Beadle & Adams, 1878); The Young Spy; or, Nick Whiffles Among the Modocs. A Romance of the North-West, as Captain J. F. C. Adams (New York: Beadle 8c Adams, 1873); Old Grizzly, the Bear Tamer, as Captain Bruin Adams (New York: Beadle & Adams, 1874); Tahle, the Trailer; or, The Block-House, as Seelin Rob¬ ins (New York: Beadle & Adams, 1875); A Comedy of Cupid; or, Faint Heart Never Won Fair Lady, as Oswald A. Gwynne (Philadelphia: W. P. Kildare, 1879); Jack's Horseshoe; or, What the "Waugroo Bitters" Did (New York: National Temperance Society, 1883); Ned in the Block-House. A Tale of Early Days in the West (Philadelphia: Porter 8c Coates, 1883); The Eclectic Primary History of the United States (New York: American Book Company, 1884); Ned in the Woods. A Tale of Early Days in the West (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1884); Ned on the River (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1884); The Lost Trail (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1885); Camp-Fire and Wigwam (Philadelphia: Porter 8c Coates, 1885); The Continental Primary Physiology; or, Good Health for Boys and Girls (New York: D. Van Winkle, 1885); republished as Ellis's Primary Physiology (New York: Taintor, 1889); Down the Mississippi (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1886); Footprints in the Forest (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1886); Lost in the Wilds (New York: Cassell, 1886); Standard Complete Arithmetic, Combining Oral and Written Exercises (St. Louis: Standard School Book Co!, 1886); Up the Tapajos; or, Adventure in Brazil (New York: Cassell, 1886); republished as The Rubber Hunters; or Adventures in Brazil (London: Cas¬ sell, 1886); The Youths' History of the United States from the Dis¬ covery of America by the Northmen to the Present Time, 4 volumes (New York: Cassell, 1886- 1887; London: Cassell, 1887); ' ■ "• :::. - University of South Florida Library The Camp in the Mountains (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1887); The Heart of Oak Detective, or, Zigzag's Full Hand, as E. A. St. Mox (New York: Beadle & Adams, 1887); The Hunters of the Ozark (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1887); The Last War Trail (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1887); On the Trail of Geronimo; or, In the Apache Country, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: Lovell, 1887); republished as In the Apache Country; or, On the Trail of Geronimo (New York: Hurst, 1910); Wyoming (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1888); Adrift in the Wilds; or, The Adventures of Two Ship¬ wrecked Boys (New York: Burt, 1889); The Boy Hunters of Kentucky (London: Cassell, 1889); Elementary Arithmetic, Combining Oral and Written Ex¬ ercises (Indianapolis: Indiana School Book, 1889); The Land of Mystery, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: Lovell, 1889); Red Feather. A Tale of the American Frontier (London: Cassell, 1889); republished as The Story of Red Feather. A Tale of the American Frontier (New York: Cassell, 1909); The Star of India (New York: American News Com¬ pany, 1889); Storm Mountain (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1889); The White Mustang. A Tale of the Lone Star State, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: Lovell, 1889); A Young Hero; or, Fighting to Win (New York: Burt, 1889); Hands Up! or, The Great Bank Burglary, as J. G. Be- thune (New York: United States Book Com¬ pany, 1890); Lost in Samoa. A Tale of Adventure in the Navigator Islands (London: Cassell, 1890; New York: Cassell, 1891); On the Trail of the Moose (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1890); Perils of the Jungle, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: Lovell, 1890); Tad; or, "Getting Even" With Him (London: Cassell, 1890); The Cabin in the Clearing. A Tale of the Frontier (Phil¬ adelphia: Porter & Coates, 1891); Through Forest and Fire (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1891); Complete School History of the United States (Philadel¬ phia: Porter & Coates, 1892; revised, Chi¬ cago: Werner, 1894); From the Throttle to the President's Chair. A Story of American Railway Life (New York: Cassell, 1892); republished as Bob Lovell's Career. A Story of American Railway Life (London: Cassell, 1892); republished as The Boys' and Girls' Story Book (New York: Mershon, 1898); Through Apache Land, as Lieutenant K. H. Jayne (St. Paul, Minn.: Price-McGill, 1893); repub¬ lished as Ned in the Mountains; or, Through Apache Land (Chicago: Thompson & Thomas, 1908); Across Texas (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1893); The Campers Out; or, the Right Path and the Wrong (Philadelphia: Penn, 1893); The Wilderness Fugitives (St. Paul: Price-McGill, 1893); Lena Wingo the Mohawk. A Sequel to "The Wilderness Fugitives" (St. Paul: Price-McGill, 1893); Lost in the Wilderness, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (St. Paul: Price-McGill, 1893); The River Fugitives (St. Paul: Price-McGill, 1893); The Third Man, as J. G. Bethune (New York: Cassell, 1893); Among the Esquimaux; or, Adventures Under the Arctic Circle (Philadelphia: Perm, 1894); Brave Tom; or, The Battle That Won (New York: Mer- riam, 1894); The Cave in the Mountain, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: Merriam, 1894); republished as Lone Wolf Cave. The Adventures of Two Boys in the Rocky Mountains (Chicago: Thompson & Thomas, 1908); The Great Cattle Trail (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1894); Common Errors in Writing and Speaking; What They Are and How to Avoid Them (New York: Wool- fall, 1894); Honest Ned (New York: Merriam, 1894); In the Pecos Country, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: Merriam, 1894); The Path in the Ravine (Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1894); Righting the Wrong (New York: Merriam, 1894); Comrades True; or, Perseverance Versus Genius (Phil¬ adelphia: Penn, 1895); Jack Midwood; or, Bread Cast Upon the Waters (New York: Merriam, 1895); The Young Conductor; or, Winning His Way (New York: Merriam, 1895); The Young Ranchers; or, Fighting the Sioux (Philadel¬ phia: Coates, 1895); The Young Scout. The Story of a West Point Lieutenant (New York: Burt, 1895); Arthur Helmuth of the H. & N.C. Railway, as Lieu¬ tenant R. H. Jayne (New York: American Publishers Corporation, 1896); Check Number 2134: A Sequel to Arthur Helmuth, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: American Publishers Corporation, 1896); Four Boys; or, The Story of a Forest Fire (New York: Merriam, 1896); The Golden Ridge, as Captain R. M. Hawthorne (New York: American Publishers Corpora¬ tion, 1896); The Golden Rock, as Lieutenant R. H. Jayne (New York: American Publishers Corporation, 1896); Shod with Silence. A Tale of the Frontier (Philadelphia: Coates, 1896); The Phantom of the River. A Sequel to "Shod With Si¬ lence" (Philadelphia: Coates, 1896); Uncrowning A King. A Tale of King Philip's War (New York: New Amsterdam Book Company, 1896); republished as The Last Struggle. A Story of King Philip's War (London: Cassell, 1908); In the Days of the Pioneers. A Sequel to "The Phantom of the River" (Philadelphia: Coates, 1897); Lives of the Presidents of the United States. Designed for Study and Supplementary Reading (Chicago: Flanagan, 1897); Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas. A Tale of the Siege of Detroit, as Colonel H. R. Gordon (New York: Dutton, 1897); A Strange Craft and its Wonderful Voyage (Philadel¬ phia: Coates, 1897); True To His Trust (Philadelphia: Penn, 1897); The Eye of the Sun (New York: Rand, McNally, 1897); Ashtray in the Forest (London: Cassell, 1898); Captured by Indians. A Tale of the American Frontier (London: Cassell, 1898); Cowmen and Rustlers. A Story of the Wyoming Cattle Ranges in 1892 (Philadelphia: Coates, 1898); The Daughter of the Chieftain. The Story of an Indian Girl (London: Cassell, 1898); Klondike Nuggets and How Two Boys Secured Them (New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1898); en¬ larged as The Young Gold Seekers of the Klondike (Philadelphia: Penn, 1899); Lost in the Rockies. A Story of Adventure in the Rocky Mountains (New York: Burt, 1898); The Secret of Coffin Island (Philadelphia: Coates, 1898); Tecumseh, Chief of the Shawanoes. A Tale of the War of 1812, as Colonel H. R. Gordon (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1898); republished as Scouts and Comrades; or, Tecumseh, Chief of the Shawanoes. A Tale of the War of 1812 (London: Cassell, 1898); Two Boys in Wyoming. A Tale of Adventure (Philadel¬ phia: Coates, 1898); Wolf-Ear the Indian. A Story of the Great Uprising of 1890-91 (London: Cassell, 1898); Young People's History of Our Country (Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1898); Dorsey the Young Inventor (New York: Fords, How¬ ard 8c Hulbert, 1899); Iron Heart, War Chief of the Iroquois (Philadelphia: Coates, 1899); A Jaunt Through Java. The Story of a Journey to the Sacred Mountain By 'Two American Boys (New York: Burt, 1899); The Land of Wonders (New York: Mershon, 1899); Osceola, Chief of the Seminoles, as Colonel H. R. Gor¬ don (New York: Dutton, 1899); republished as In Red Indian Trails; or, Osceola, Chief of the Seminoles (London: Cassell, 1899); Through Jungle and Wilderness (New York: Mershon, 1899); Blazing Arrow. A Tale of the Frontier (Philadelphia: Coates, 1900); The Boy Patriot. A Story of jack the Young Friend of Washington (New York: Burt, 1900); Red Jacket, the Last of the Senecas, as Colonel H. R. Gordon (New York: Dutton, 1900); Red Plume (New York: Mershon, 1900); A Waif of the Mountains (New York: Mershon, 1900); Our Jim; or, The Power of Example (Boston: Estes, 1901); Red Eagle. A Tale of the Frontier (Philadelphia: Coates, 1901); republished as The Chieftain and the Scout. A Tale of the Frontier (London: Cassell, 1901); The Story of the Greatest Nations, From the Dawn of History to the Twentieth Century; A Comprehensive History, Founded Upon the Leading Authorities, Including a Complete Chronology of the World, and A Pronouncing Vocabulary of Each Nation, by Ellis and Charles F. Home, 9 volumes (New York: Niglutsch, 1901-1903); Young People's History of England (Philadelphia: Al- temus, 1901); Young People's History of France (Philadelphia: Al- temus, 1901); Young People's History of Germany (Philadelphia: Al- temus, 1901); Bear Cavern (London: Cassell, 1902); Jim and Joe, Two Brave Boys (Philadelphia: Coates, 1902); Logan the Mingo. A Story of the Frontier, as Colonel H. R. Gordon (New York: Dutton, 1902); Lucky Ned (G. F. S.) (Boston: Estes, 1902); An American King. A Story of King Philip's War (Phil¬ adelphia: Coates, 1903); The Jungle Fugitives. A Tale of Life and Adventure in India, Including Also Many Stories of American Adventure, Enterprise and Daring (New York: Hurst, 1903); Limber Lew, the Circus Boy! or, The Battle of Life (Phil¬ adelphia: Coates, 1903); Old Ironsides, The Hero of Tripoli and 1812 and Other Tales and Adventures on Sea and Land (New York: Hurst, 1903); True Blue. A Story of Luck and Pluck (Boston: Estes, 1903); The Cromwell of Virginia. A Tale of Bacon's Rebellion (Philadelphia: Coates, 1904); Patriot and Tory (Boston: Estes, 1904); Teddy and Towser. A Story of Early Days in California, as Seward D. Lisle (Philadelphia: Coates, 1904); The Telegraph Messenger Boy; or, The Straight Road to Success (New York: Mershon, 1904); Up the Forked River; or, Adventures in South America, as Seward D. Lisle (Philadelphia: Coates, 1904); Deerfoot in the Forest (Philadelphia: Winston, 1905; London: Cassell, 1906); Deerfoot on the Prairies (Philadelphia: Winston, 1905; London: Cassell, 1906); Deerfoot in the Mountains (Philadelphia: Winston, 1905; London: Cassell, 1906); Plucky Jo (Boston: Estes, 1905); The Lost River (London: Cassell, 1905); River and Forest (London: Cassell, 1905); The Young People's Imitation of Christ, Based on the Work of Thomas a Kempis (Philadelphia: Grif¬ fith & Rowland, 1905); Black Partridge; or The Fall of Fort Dearborn, as Colo¬ nel H. R. Gordon (New York: Dutton, 1906); The Cruise of the Firefly, by Ellis and William Pen¬ dleton Chipman (Philadelphia: Winston, 1906); From Low to High Gear (Boston: Estes, 1906); From the Ranch to the White House; Life of Theodore Roosevelt, Author, Legislator, Field Sportsman, Soldier, Reformer and Executive (New York: Hurst, 1906); A Hunt on Snow-Shoes (Philadelphia: Winston, 1906); A Princess of the Woods (London: Cassell, 1906); re¬ published as Pocahontas, A Princess of the Woods (New York: McLoughlin Brothers, 1908); Brave Billy (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); Fighting to Win. The Story of a New York Boy (New York: Burt, 1907); The Forest Messengers (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); River and Jungle (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); The Hunt of the White Elephant. A Sequel to "River and Jungle" (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); The Lost Dragon (Boston: Estes, 1907); The Mountain Star (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); Plucky Dick; or, Sowing and Reaping (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); The Queen of the Clouds (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); Tam; or, Holding the Fort (Philadelphia: Winston, 1907); Fire, Snow and Water; or, Life in the Lone Land (Phil¬ adelphia: Winston, 1908); Off the Reservation; or, Caught in an Apache Raid (Phil¬ adelphia: Winston, 1908); The P. Q. £sf G.; or, "As the Twig is Bent the Tree's Inclined" (Boston: Estes, 1908); The Phantom Auto (Philadelphia: Winston, 1908); The Round-Up; or, Geronimo's Last Raid (Philadel¬ phia: Winston, 1908); Trailing Geronimo; or, Campaigning with Crook (Phil¬ adelphia: Winston, 1908); The Young Pioneers; or, Better to be Born Plucky than Rich (New York: Burt, 1908); Alden the Pony Express Rider; or, Racing for Life (Phil¬ adelphia: Winston, 1909); republished as The Pony Express Rider (London: Cassell, 1919); Alden Among the Indians; or, The Search for the Missing Pony Express Rider (Philadelphia: Winston, 1909); republished as Lost Among the Redmen (London: Cassell, 1919); Lost in the Rockies (London: Cassell, 1909); Unlucky Tib (Boston: Estes, 1909); Upside Down. An Automobile Story for Boys (Philadel¬ phia: Winston, 1909); Bill Biddon, Trapper; or, Life in the North-West (New York: Hurst, 1910); Captain of the Camp; or, Ben the Young Boss (Phila¬ delphia: Winston, 1910); Catamount Camp (Philadelphia: Winston, 1910); The Forest Spy. A Tale of the War of 1812 (New York: Hurst, 1910); The Forest Angel. A Romance of Kentucky Rangers' Life (New York: Hurst, 1910); Nathan Todd; or, The Fate of the Sioux' Captive (New York: Hurst, 1910); Work and Win. The Story of a Country Boy's Success (New York: Burt, 1910); The Flying Boys in the Sky (Philadelphia: Winston, 1911); republished as The Dragon of the Sky (London: Cassell, 1915); The Flying Boys to the Rescue (Philadelphia: Winston, 1911); A Grandfather's Historic Stories of our Country From Its Discovery to the Present Time, 10 volumes (New York: Hartley-Thomas, 1911); The Lost Trail (New York: Hurst, 1911); The Ranger; or, The Fugitives of the Border (New York: Hurst, 1911); The Hunter's Cabin. An Episode of the Early Settlements of Southern Ohio (New York: Hurst, 1911); Adrift on the Pacific. A Boys' Story of the Sea and its Peril (New York: Burt, 1912); Fighting Phil (Philadelphia: Winston, 1912); The Launch Boys' Adventures in Northern Waters (Phil¬ adelphia: Winston, 1912); The Launch Boys' Cruise in the Deerfoot (Philadelphia: Winston, 1912); republished as Cruise of the Deerfoot (London: Cassell, 1915); The Riflemen of the Miami (New York: Hurst, 1912); The Worst Boy (New York: American Tract Society, 1912); The Boy Patrol Around the Council Fire (Philadelphia: Winston, 1913); The Boy Patrol on Guard (Philadelphia: Winston, 1913); Remember the Alamo (Philadelphia: Winston, 1914); republished as Redskin and Scout (London: Cassell, 1915); The Three Arrows (Philadelphia: Winston, 1914). OTHER: The Youth's Dictionary of Mythology for Boys and Girls, edited by Ellis (New York: Woolfall, 1895); republished as 1000 Mythological Char¬ acters Briefly Described (New York: Hinds & No¬ ble, 1899); The Youth's Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls, edited by Ellis (New York: Woolfall, 1895). Edward Sylvester Ellis began his half-century literary career in 1860 with a tale of Indian fighting on the post-Revolutionary American frontier; by the time he ceased to write, his subjects included aeroplanes and motorcars. In between, he had been one of the most prolific and widely read writers of American boys' books of all time and done much to create the romantic myth of the American West. Since Ellis was perhaps the most extensive user of pseudonyms in American literary history, it is virtually impossible to tell how many works he actually wrote. Ellis scholar Denis R. Rogers esti¬ mates that he wrote at least 467 major works during his active writing years from 1860 to 1915. Addi¬ tionally, Rogers credits Ellis with a monumental total of from 523 to more than 650 minor works such as sketches, articles, and poems. Of this vast output the bulk consists of works for children, though Ellis also turned out adult books as well. Of the popularity of Ellis's books for children, Al¬ bert Johannsen wrote, "His juvenile stories had an enormous sale, ranking with those of William T. Adams and Horatio Alger." Ellis began life in the town of Geneva, in Ash¬ tabula County, Ohio. He was the son of Sylvester and Mary Alberty Ellis. In 1846, the family re¬ moved to New Jersey where, with brief interrup¬ tions, he was to reside fop the remainder of his life. Active in the Methodist Church, Ellis in later life frequently used religious elements in his plots and titles. In his teens, Ellis attended the State Normal School of New Jersey at Trenton. He became a teacher upon graduation. It was while teaching at Red Bank, New Jersey, in 1860 that the nineteen- year-old Ellis wrote Seth Jones; or, The Captives of the Frontier, the work that launched his career as a nov¬ elist. Seth Jones is a Fenimore Cooperish tale of the frontier immediately following the American Rev¬ olution. It is replete with captures, escapes, rescues, dialect humor, and all the other paraphernalia that became associated with the early dime novel. The hero, an aged, dialect-speaking frontiersman of pe¬ culiar appearance and habits, sets out to rescue a fair damsel carried off by hostile Indians. Success¬ ful at the end of the novel, the eccentric Seth is revealed as none other than the young, handsome Eugene Morton, long lost lover of the kidnapped girl's attractive aunt. A secondary hero gets the girl, Morton gets the aunt, and virtue triumphs over savagery. Ellis submitted his manuscript to the New York offices of Irwin P. Beadle & Company, pi¬ oneer publisher of the dime novels that would shortly flood the nation with cheap fiction. Real¬ izing the potential of the story Beadle accepted it, paying the unknown young author $75.00 for pub¬ lication rights. Released after a saturation adver¬ tising campaign that plastered New York billboards, barns, and newspaper columns with cu¬ riosity-stimulating advance notices, Seth Jones sold an estimated 60,000 copies during the first week at a time when sales of 20,000 made a novel a best¬ seller. The story of how the unknown young teacher struck it rich with his very first book en¬ tered the realm of literary folklore, to be retold in books and articles down through the years. In point of fact, Ellis had been writing in a small way for some time before Seth Jones cata¬ pulted him to fame. His first known publication was a poem entitled "The Wanderer," which had appeared in Ballou's Dollar Monthly for September 1857. He had even sold a full-length story prior to Seth Jones. Entitled "Dick Flinton; or, Life on the Border," it had been serialized in the New York Dis¬ patch beginning on 5 March 1859. With some char¬ acters' names changed, this story was later published as a dime novel by Beadle as Kent, the Ranger (1863). It was, however, the phenomenal success of Seth Jones that determined young Ellis to begin a serious writing career. From the virtual standing start of Seth Jones, Ellis suddenly found himself one of the best known popular novelists in the nation. Beadle contracted with him for four novels annually, and Ellis com¬ menced a five-year stint of writing dime novels for the country's premier dime novel house. During the years from 1860 to 1865 that he wrote for Bea¬ dle, he by no means restricted his burgeoning out¬ put to a single firm. Out of the 354 known numbers of the Ten Cent Novels series published by Beadle's leading rival, George Munro & Company, nearly a third were written by Edward S. Ellis. As it was undesirable to have too many works by a single author, many of Ellis's publications starting as early as 1862 appeared under pseudonyms. In an era notable for the use of pseudonyms, Ellis excelled. Ellis bibliographer Denis R. Rogers has identified no less than ninety-eight names as¬ sociated with him in the course of his career. Thirty-four have been definitely confirmed as Ellis pseudonyms. These are: Captain "Bruin" Adams; Captain J. F. C. Adams; Boynton Belknap, M.D.; J. G. Bethune; J. H. Bethune; Henry R. Brisbane; Mahlon A. Brown; Captain Latham C. Carleton; The Ex-Reporter; Frank Faulkner; Colonel H. R. Gordon; Oscar A. Gwynne; Oswald A. Gwynne; Captain R. M. Hawthorne; Lieutenant R. H. Jayne; Charles A. LaSalle; George E. Hunter; Our New Contributor (in the New York Fireside Companion)', Robin Playfellow; Boynton Randolph, M.D.; Geof¬ frey Randolph; Lieutenant J. H. Randolph; Rollo Robins, Jr.; Seelin Robins; Emerson Rodman; E. A. St. Mox; Egbert S. Thomas; A U.S. Detective (in Saturday Night and the Hearthstone)-, Nick Wilson. Perhaps the best known of Ellis's pseudonyms was Lieutenant R. H. Jayne, which he first used in 1874. Ellis was fond of using names with military titles attached, as they added a touch of verisimi¬ litude to his tales of adventure. The most interest¬ ing of his many noms de plume, however, was Captain J. F. C. Adams, also known as Bruin Ad¬ ams, who for decades was believed to be a real person. "Adams" wrote Western tales of hunting and trapping and was purported to be the nephew of James Capen Adams (1807-1860), the famous Grizzly Adams. By comparing the texts of the Ad¬ ams stories of the 1870s with later works which appeared with different titles under Ellis's name, Albert J ohannsen has conclusively proven that Ad¬ ams was in fact Edward S. Ellis. When Irwin Beadle left his dime novel firm in 1865, Ellis went with him. On 7 October of that year, Ellis contracted to write exclusively for the American Novels series to be published by the newly formed firm known as Irwin P. Beadle. Ellis remained a contributor to Beadle's new publishing house until December 1868, a year after Irwin Bea¬ dle himself had left the firm. Ellis then returned to the original Beadle & Company, where he re¬ mained a mainstay of the Beadle writers' stable un¬ til 1874. After the number 308 of Beadle's Dime Novels was published on 19 May 1874, he dissolved his association with Beadle and thereafter wrote very little for the firm. This was not readily ap- f. L WJ r r - WWWWW WMWWWWW)HMWMliliTfc IIk^ ■ I Cbpjrrt|btM) In ikv by Bum and Vol IV * PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY BEADLE AND ADAMS, Price, no Number. No w william street, new york. 5 Cents. JN O. Uo. The Boy Miners; or, The Enchanted Island. A TALE OF THE YELLOWSTONE COUNTRY. BY KDWAUD W. KLLI8, AUTHOR or " BllX BMMMOr,'* " KKTH JOIfKS,'' " FIAT ■mPD," " rKOXTnCR AXUKI^" KTT. Alt ir> % 35 ■« \\ -rx« r y rf. 44 OAT Ui in A unu TOO Ll'MUr'," MLTTKKCA JIM, TullASti LUCK A OIAXT IS UU» UuM*. M 1 CA* PtUL. UT I CA**T KKKAk' Front cover for one of Ellis's tales published in Beadle and Adams's weekly series for boys (University of South Florida Library) parent to the reading public, as Beadle continued for many years to republish Ellis's earlier works, often under altered titles and author credits. Ellis's early novels were not only well received by the public but also got favorable notice from many reviewers. William Everett wrote in his "Crit¬ ical Notices" in the North American Review for July 1864 that "Mr. Ellis's 'Seth Jones' and 'Trail Hunt¬ ers' are good, very good. Mr. Ellis's novels are fa¬ vorites, and deserve to be. He shows variety and originality in his characters; and his Indians are human beings, and not fancy pieces." Although Ellis never visited the frontier and committed such faux pas as having Indians and pioneers alike pro¬ pel canoes with oars (complete with muffled oar¬ locks), he began rather early in his career to strive for factual and historical accuracy. In speaking of Ellis's stories of the early 1870s, Denis Rogers said "Certainly the proven Ellis tales of the period show an accuracy of detail as to fauna, flora and geog¬ raphy and an attention to an intelligible plot which is conspicuously absent from the five Marcy Hunter tales." On a personal as well as a professional basis, the 1860s were significant years for Ellis. On 25 December 1862 Ellis married Anne M. Deane. By this marriage he had one son, Wilmot Edward, later a U.S. Army officer and instructor at West Point, and three daughters, Miriam, Lillian, and Helen. Unfortunately the marriage proved unsuccessful, ending in divorce in 1887, the same year Ellis was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree by Princeton College. Seth Jones and most of Ellis's other early works were not written specifically with juvenile readers in mind, but the colorful, action-packed, adventure stories were avidly devoured by young American readers satiated with the "improving" juvenile lit¬ erature of the day. Realizing his talent for chil¬ dren's literature, from around 1872 Ellis turned more and more toward the writing of stories in¬ tended for young people. As was the case with Ed¬ gar Rice Burroughs's Tarzan books at a much later date, many of Ellis's stories originally written for the adult market were subsequently republished as juveniles. Like Seth Jones, most of Ellis's early output was in the form of frontier epics along the lines of Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, though Ellis omit¬ ted the often tedious descriptive passages found in Cooper. As the American frontier moved west¬ ward, so did the scenes of Ellis's Western tales, though he continued to write "leatherstocking" ti¬ tles. While his forte was the Western adventure story, Ellis was a versatile writer who handled suc¬ cessfully such diverse novel subgenres as detective stories and love stories. He has, in fact, a good claim to being among the first American science-fiction writers. His 1870 dime novel The Huge Hunter; or, The Steam Man of the Prairie 5 was a Western built around a boy inventor who had created a steam- powered robot capable of hauling a wagon rick¬ shaw-fashion. As Denis Rogers wrote, "it is difficult to be emphatic that anything was outside the scope of such a prolific and versatile writer." While producing his multitude of novels, Ellis found time to contribute extensively to weekly story papers, newspapers, and other periodical publi¬ cations. Items from his pen appeared under his own name and under his many pseudonyms in such popular juvenile periodicals as Banner Weekly, Boys' Holiday, Family Story Paper, Fireside Companion, Frank Leslie's Boys' and Girls' Weekly, Golden Days, Golden Argosy, Good News, New York Weekly, and Saturday Night. In a letter to New York Ledger publisher Rob¬ ert Bonner in 1881, Ellis stated that in the twelve years between 1869 and 1881 he had written more than forty serials for periodical publishers Davis & Everson alone. Many of Ellis's stories were first published as serials in periodicals, then as dime novels, and finally as clothbound books. Ellis also on several occasions tried his hand at editing ju¬ venile periodicals. He was associate editor for Golden Days in 1878 and 1879 and edited Boys' Hol¬ iday in 1890 and 1891. It was while on the staff of Golden Days that he met his second wife, the writer Clara Spaulding Brown, a fellow staff member whom he married twenty-one years later on 20 No¬ vember 1900. After 1883 the bulk of Ellis's nonperiodical output appeared in the form of clothbound books rather than in the paperbound dime novel format of his earlier days. The Philadelphia firm of Porter and Coates became his most important publisher, a role that was fulfilled in turn by its successors Henry T. Coates and Company and the J. C. Win¬ ston Company. In Britain, where Ellis's novels had been popular since the 1861 appearance of Seth Jones as part of Beadle's American Library, the most important of his publishers was the London firm of Cassell and Company, Limited. Although these firms published most of Ellis's books, in the course of more than a half a century of writing his works appeared under the imprints of more than 279 American and foreign publishers. The 1880s saw Ellis branch out from fiction into the fields of historical and educational writing. His The Eclectic Primary History of the United States % .«». no. J*>. HO. M m/fJmK mm i# ■£L« v. SQUATTY DICK. JJPA"'-" *■ CJ- ^ HiiMdMim()k,ln ran. ; 6 It n u)ki VU BEADIF ANT rnMPAVT »«* >™s uuroox «4 Timwotm wv Am. Mrwt Co., 119 & 121 MtMtn *t., it. I. - " ' Novel M*ri« 1-uMisi ,-l I . b ICS MOMJll.V NUM1IKW 78 UK" osr ^$8!££**V>?v ««\>5i£r* w- THE RIVAL SCOOTS. NEW YORK: nBADLE AND '~OMP\NY. 118 WILLIAM ST B. J. Tilley, Newport, S. L VElg s The Phantom Trail. American Newt Co., 39 & 41 Chamber* St N.Y. Covers for four dime novels by Ellis (University of South Florida Library) (1884) was his first foray into the textbook field. It enjoyed considerable popularity and encouraged Ellis to pursue the writing of school books. Between 1884 and 1889 he wrote a total of ten school texts, including four arithmetics, four histories of Amer¬ ica, a physiology text, and an English grammar. As a textbook writer Ellis was best known for his Amer¬ ican histories, which were considered to be accu¬ rate, scholarly, and free of regional or political bias. In writing history Ellis was, however, a devoted American nationalist where international relations were concerned. He once wrote of the United States that "The record of no people can approach it in magnificence of achievement as regards art, science, education, literature, invention, and all that makes for true progress." Ellis's history texts were entertainingly written and well illustrated, giving them great appeal to students used to drab school books. "I regret very much," Albert Johann- sen once wrote, "that I did not have a book like Ellis' 'Youth's History of the United States' when 1 was a boy, in place of a history that was simply a mass of names and dates of battles, as are, I am afraid, many of the modern school histories." Ellis was eminently qualified to write school books. Although Seth Jones and subsequent novels had brought Ellis a flourishing career as a writer of popular fiction, he did not give up teaching. While actively cranking out stories he continued through the 1860s and 1870s to teach in New Jer¬ sey's public schools, becoming vice-principal of a school in Patterson and principal of the largest grammar school in Trenton. Ultimately, he became Trenton's city superintendent of education and served a term on the New Jersey State Board of Education. Not until the mid-1880s did he finally resign from teaching to devote himself to full-time writing. In addition to giving him outstanding cre¬ dentials as a writer of school books, his long and intimate acquaintance with boys and girls in the classroom explains his remarkable understanding of the reading tastes and interests of America's youngsters. Early in the 1880s Ellis created his most pop¬ ular character, the Indian Deerfoot, the Shawanoe. Deerfoot was "one of the handsomest and ablest warriors who ever trod the forest, skillful beyond compare with bow and arrow, later with the rifle, and a friend of the white man." Deerfoot was fea¬ tured in twelve novels, which appeared in four se¬ ries over the period from 1883 to 1905. Each of the series consisted of three books, the whole com¬ prising a saga tracing the life of Deerfoot from his untamed pagan youth in the 1780s to his death as a mature Christian. The character of Deerfoot was progressively developed in each book of the first nine volumes, giving him a depth contrasting strongly with the one-dimensional "redskins" in¬ habiting most juvenile Westerns of the period. Deerfoot made his entrance in Ned in the Block- House (1883), the first volume of the Boy Pioneer series. A tale about an attack on a frontier fort by Indians in 1788, Ned in the Block-House became El¬ lis's most successful book, appearing in fifty-eight editions, including those published in Danish, Dutch, Finnish, and Swedish. In this and the suc¬ ceeding books of the series Deerfoot's companions are two boys, one white, the title character, boy frontiersman Ned Preston, and his black friend Wildblossom. Ned in the Woods (1884), a story of hunting in Kentucky enlivened by the presence of horse thieves and hostile Wyandottes, was the next Deerfoot story, followed by Ned on the River (1884), in which Deerfoot outwits the young Tecumseh on the Ohio River to save a flatboat crew. The first Deerfoot trilogy was followed by the Log Cabin series, in which Deerfoot's two young friends are an American and a German boy. In the first volume of the series, The Lost Trail (1885), Deerfoot saves the boys from an Indian band in the Mississippi country during the 1790s. In Camp- Fire and Wigwam (1885), Deerfoot's youthful com¬ panions are looking for a lost horse when they are captured by a band of Sauks. Though Deerfoot manages to rescue the American boy, he is forced to leave the German behind until the next book, Footprints in the Forest (1886). In this final volume of the series, he saves the young German from some Pawnees to whom the Sauks had transferred him. The next three Deerfoot novels, The Deer¬ foot series, were intended by Ellis to conclude a nine-volume whole. Deerfoot's young sidekicks this time are American and Irish. In The Hunters of the Ozark (1887), the two boys join a trapping party in Missouri. They are captured by Winnebagoes but delivered by the gallant Deerfoot. The story, like those of the preceeding series, is set in the 1790s. The Camp in the Mountains (1887) carries on where the previous volume leaves off, with the resourceful Deerfoot again saving his white friends from their Indian foes. The final volume of the series, The Last War Trail (1887) has Deerfoot leading an expedi¬ tion to rescue captives carried off from a frontier settlement by Winnebagoes. Although the expe¬ dition succeeds in delivering the captives, Deer¬ foot's wife and child are accidentally killed, and the incomparable Deerfoot dies of grief. A creation as popular as Deerfoot is, however, not easily disposed of, as Arthur Conan Doyle dis¬ covered when he tried to kill off Sherlock Holmes. Ellis's public was not pleased with the death of so sympathetic a character. In 1905 Ellis bowed to popular demand and resurrected his Indian hero in The New Deerfoot series. Unfortunately, the three books of the new series lack the sureness of touch and appeal of the original nine volumes. The stories are placed in time between the events of the Log Cabin series and those of the Deerfoot series. The first book, Deerfoot in the Forest (1905) shows the noble red man rescuing teenage twins from hostiles. In the second, Deerfoot on the Prairies (1905), Ellis's hero journeys from Ohio to the Pa¬ cific coast, while in the final tale, Deerfoot in the Mountains (1905), Deerfoot converts a Blackfoot chief to Christianity, apparently by bludgeoning him into submission with religious platitudes. Denis Rogers summed up the final New Deerfoot story with the comment, "In the final tale, 'Deerfoot in the Mountains,' Ellis' normally sure touch deserts him altogether, when he places undue emphasis on militant Christianity and degenerates to mere preaching at his young readers; moreover there is an epilogue more suitable to a book on spiritualism than to a boys' adventure yarn." In the 1890s and into the early twentieth cen¬ tury Ellis turned out several nonfiction books for children, including The Youth's Dictionary of Mythol- ogy for Boys and Girls (1895), Young People's History of Our Country (1898), and The Young People's Imi¬ tation of Christ (1905). In Ellis's own opinion, the crowning achievement of his career as a writer was A Grandfather's Historic Stories of our Country From Its Discovery to the Present Time (1911). Sold through an intensive nationwide subscription campaign, this ten-volume illustrated history of America is written in the style of Samuel Goodrich's earlier Peter Par¬ ley books. Unfortunately, the public did not share Ellis's enthusiasm for the work, and it was a finan¬ cial failure. Residing at Upper Montclair, New Jer¬ sey, Ellis continued to write books for children and adults until at least as late as 1915. He died on 20 June 1916 while vacationing at Cliff Island, Casco Bay, Maine. The 1926 volume of The National Cyclopedia of American Biography in its entry on Edward S. Ellis said of his books, "They are clean, wholesome and instructive, usually with a background of real his¬ tory, and while abounding in such incidents as de¬ light young readers, are manly and moral in their teachings." Though his works are not great liter¬ ature, Ellis deserves a prominent niche in the his¬ tory of American writing for children if for no reason other than the sheer volume and popularity of his juvenile output. His work is, for its period, well written, well plotted and usually—within the often fantastical limits of individual stories—be¬ lievable. Ellis's major characters are generally well delineated, in some cases with considerable per¬ ception. The best of his creations are endowed with human qualities that appealed vividly to his young readers. Most important of all, his stories both re¬ flected and shaped the America he lived in, a nation in transition from a frontier to a modern urbanized society. Ellis was a storyteller who for almost half a century was able with almost instinctive precision to turn out the kind of literature young Americans wanted and in quantities seldom equaled by any writer of his day or our own. References: John Levi Cutler, "Gilbert Patten and His Frank Merriwell Saga," Maine Bulletin, 36 (May 1934): 20-21; Albert Johannsen, The House of Beadle and Adams (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950), I: pp. 31-37; II: pp. 93-100; J. Edward Leithead, "Now They're Collector's Items # 1, Edward S. Ellis and Harry Castle- mon," Dime Novel Round-Up, no. 405 (15 June 1966): 58-60; no. 406 (15 July 1966): 66-69; Mary Noel, Villains Galore . . . The Heyday of the Pop¬ ular Story Weekly (New York: Macmillan, 1954), pp. 118, 121, 173, 178, 181, 185,223- 224; Edmund Pearson, Dime Novels; or, Following an Old Trail in Popular Literature (Boston: Little, Brown, 1929), pp. 33-34, 46, 84-85, 91, 98, 100-103, 132, 259; Denis R. Rogers, "The Detective Stories of Edward S. Ellis," Dime Novel Round-Up, no. 558 (De¬ cember 1982): 94-101; no. 559 (February 1983): 2-10, 23-24; Rogers, "The Edward S. Ellis Stories Published by the Mershon Complex," Dime Novel Round- Up, no. 490 (15 July 1973): 70-76; no. 491 (15 August 1973): 86-92; no. 492 (15 September 1973): 104-110; Rogers, "Ellis for Beginners," Dime Novel Round- Up, no. 529 (February 1978): 2-20; Rogers, "Ellis' Ten War Chief Tales," Dime Novel Round-Up, no. 539 (October 1979): 74-76; Rogers, "The Lovell Complex," Dime Novel Round- Up, no. 527 (October 1977): 98-115; Rogers, "Oddities of Dime Novel Days," Dime Novel Round-Up, no. 526 (August 1977): 85-88. Rogers, "The Pseudonyms of Edward S. Ellis," Dime NovelRound-Up, no. 266 (15 November 1954): 82-83; no. 267 (15 December 1954): 90-94; no. 268 (15 January 1955): 2-4; no. 307 (15 April 1958): 25-28; no. 315 (15 December 1958): 148-150; no. 318 (15 March 1959): 22- 25; no. 319 (15 April 1959): 30-32, 35-37; no. 320 (15 May 1959): 42, 45; no. 330 (15 March 1960): 18-30; no. 334 (15 July 1960): 58-62; no. 336 (15 September 1960): 74-78; no. 363 (15 December 1962): 108-109; Rogers, "A Statistical Alphabet of Edward S. Ellis," Dime Novel Round-Up, no. 446 (15 November 1969): 117-118; Rogers, "A Survey of the Probable Publication Pat¬ tern of the Books by Edward S. Ellis Issued Under the Imprints of A. L. Burt and the A. L. Burt Company, New York," Dime Novel Round-Up, no. 524 (April 1977): 26-43; Rogers with J. Edward Leithead, "A Publication Pattern of Edward S. Ellis," Dime Novel Round- Up, no. 481 (15 October 1972): 96-106.