Full Citation

  • Title The speech of William Wilberforce, Esq. representative for the county of York, On Wednesday the 13th of May, 1789, on the question of the abolition of the slave trade. To which are added, the resolutions then moved, and a short sketch of the speeches of the other members
  • Author Wilberforce, William, 1759-1833
  • Imprint London : Printed at the Logographic Press, and sold by J. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly; C. Stalkes, Stationers-Court, Ludgate-Street; and W. Richardson, under the Royal-Exchange, [1789].
  • Pages 77
  • Language English
  • Microfilm Reel # 16133
  • Physical Description 76p. ; 8°
  • ESTC Number T150132
  • Source Library Goldsmiths Library of Economic Literature, Senate House Library, University of London
THE. SPEECHI WILIAM WILBERFORCE, Efq. REPRSESENTATIV FOR THET C OUN TY1 OFI ~ YORKC, ON WEDT~JNESDAYY THEII I3ru OF MlAY, 17F9, ON$ TCE ( GESTION0 OF THIE pBOLITION OF THE~ SLAVE TRADE, TO lYrt:CH ARt ADDSWI THE RESOLUTOIONS THEN MOVED, AND A SH1ORT SKETCH OFP Tat. SPEECHES OF THIE OTHER MLEM~BERS. LONDON: yanr1a0 n ATil Irn gograph~Jic 3EttCf AND SOLD 13Y J. WnL'r s, No1~69,PI~eA~zzLLv; C. STALICEc, Surrlo nst-CbU nr J~anuar-ETS tast ar; r \n . Rtenanosoal ur.vnanl Trus Ro1.4- I~EcthStiC. WVILLIAM W~LtBERFORCE,~ E5fq. STr WarouwIP, DOLBE~N ,3~ 'JHEN I confider cthe magnitude of th& fubjea· which~ I am to brin~g b~efore the H-oufe--a fubjeat, in which~ the int~e- rests, not of this country, nor of Europe alone, but of thle wuhole world, .azd· of pof- terity, ar-e involved; and when I think, at thle fame tinie, on thle wevaknefs of thle ad- vocate wcho h~as unldertaken this great cause -whvlen theret reticaions prels uponz my mind,it· is impossible for me not to feel both terrified anld concerned at my o~wn inadequacy to such a talk. But. when I refledt, howTever, On the encouragement wvhich I have had, " Chairman of thle Commb u lc. A 2 thrlough1 (4) throug-h the whole courfet of a long and la. borious examination of this qucftion, howy much candour I hlave exper~incecd, and how~ con~viaion has increased within my own minld, in proportion as I have advanuced in my laioours i-whe~cn I refice?, efpsecially, that, hlow-ever adverle any Gen~tlemens may nowi be·, yFet we thall all, malft afibredly, be o~f one op;Inion in the en:d. WhnIur myself to thieri thourghts, I t~rke cr~nnagel- I determinle to f-orget Jl1 my oth~er Icars, and I tnerdi forward w'iith a firmer th~ p, in the full afibrance that my cauf~i;e wtill bear- me outI, an~d th~at I thall be: able to jufi Fyl, up~on the clea-rest principlel, every reflolutionl in my hand--the avrowed: _ end of wh~iichl, Sir, is,--the total Ab~olitionl of the Slav\e Trade, I writh1 ex-cceedingly;, inl the outlet, to giuard both m!-elf and1 the H-ouric f~rom enl- teiing into thle Ifubj a withl any Artl of pas- sion. It is niot thei~r palmous I ha~~ll appeal to-I aflk onlyl for thI~r cool ;and impalrtial reason; and I withI nlot to talke thecm b~y luy* prize·, but to de~liberste, polar by poinlt, Upon every parrt of this quelPIon. I me~(an niot (s) iio-t to, accure: any one, but to take thre fhamne upon1 myfulf, in commonl, indeed, withi the whlole Parliamen~t of Great Britain, for hav- ing fuffered this hocrrid trade to be carried on, under thiicr authority. We are all guilty-wme ought~ -all to plead guilty, and not to exculpalte ourselves, by throwing the blame onl other-s; and I thrlefbre deprecate every kinrd of refleation, aga~infkthe variouis dfcric-ptionls of people wtho are more imme- diately involved in this wretched boufnef~s. In~ opening th~e nitture of thle Slave Trade, 3 neecd only obfecrve, that it is found, by ex- Perience, to be juff such as every manl, who de~s hris reason, wouldl in~fallibly con~clude it t~o be. For my own par-t, so clearly am 1 convin~ced of the mirchiefs ;inseparable from it, thatt I thlould hardly wvant any sus- t~her evidnce than my own mind woauld fur- nifh,, by the most limple dedu~ions. Fa~s, htowever, are now laid bef~ore the House3. A report has been mrade by his lV~aelty's Privy Council, which, I truf1, every Gentleman has readl, and which asCertains the Slave Trade to be juff such inl pradice as we kinow, A 3 from (6) frroml theory, that it mnuff be. What thould wc fiusppole muff naturally be the conf~e- quence of our carryinlg on a Slave Trade wijth Africa ? WIith a -country, valk in its extent, n~ot utterly barbar~ous, but civilizedJ inz a very hI-all degoree ? Does an~y one sup- Fofe a ,Slave Trade would hd;p their civilil zation ? Tha:t Afri-ca wvouldl proftZ by thlch an intercourse ? ]Is it not plainl, that thle must jkgr from it ? That civiization muit be checked; that her barbar~ous manners muff be made more barbarous;; and that the hap- pineis of her mitll~Ion of- inhabitants muff be prejudce;d by her inrtercourfe with Bri- tain ?' Does not every one f~ee, that a Slave Trade, carried onl arounld her coatcs, mult calr-ry Folence anld dc~lolation to her very centlre ? That, in a Contrine~nt, juff emner- ging fr~om barbarilin, if a Trade in Milen isi eflabl~ihed-i-f her men are aIll converted intto good;, aInd becomne commodities that: can be ba~rtered, it followts, they muff be subjecT to ra-age juff as gods rle; a7~.ndr th, too, at a p~eriod of civilizat-ion, wvhen there is no pr-o~eteing Legjifature to defend this their only fort of property, inr the farne r mannlrer mTanlner a; the rig~hts of propertyi are maliis tained by th~e legislature of every civilized ;country. We fee then~, n the nature of thingS, how edil~y all the pra~t~ices of Africa are to be eczounted fo~r. H~er kings are nevercom-, pelled to wiar, that we can hear of, by pub- lic principles,--by national glory-f-t~ill less by the love of their people. In1 Europe it: is the extentioni of cornrerce, the mainsb tenlance of national honor, or forme great public ab~jcit that is ever the motive to war with ever-y monrar~ch; but, in Afr-ica, It is the personal o:;ar~ic and /cnfuality of the~r kings: ·thlere two vices of: avar;ce and fenfbality, (the maf1 powverful and predo- mtinant mr n~atures thus cor~rupt) we tempt, wec flimulate in all there Africanl Princes, anld we depend upon these vices for the very maintenance of the Slave Trade. Does the king of Bar-beffinl wanlt br~andy * ? He has on~ly to fend his troops, in the night-tirne, to burn anld def~oIlae a village; the captives wi~ll serve as comml~oditi's, that may be bar- tcred with the British trader. What a " V-ide Dr. Spaarman's evidence before th~e Privyt Council. A 4 firiking striking viewv ofC the wretchecd slate of As·· rica does thle tragedy of Calabar ~fornith I Twco towns, forrmzerly hoffle, had· fettled thidr difference~s, and by anl 19ter-marriage among their chiefs, had each pledged them- selves to peace; but the Trade in Slaves wvas prejudiced by such pacifications, and it be-~ came,- therefore, the policy of our traders to renew the hostilities. I~his, their policy, wias foodr put in praftice, and: the fcenle of carnage, which followTed wa~s such, tha~t it is bectte perhaps,· to refer Gentlemen to, the Privy Councl's Re~port, than to agitate their mindrs by dwelling on it. The Slave Trade, fn its vecry nature, is the source of such kIn~d of tr-;gedies, nor has there been a single pcrlonl, ahnoff, be- fore thle Pr;ivy Cocuncil, wvho Ioes nlot add~ famet=h!:ng, by his reft; monly , to thle mass of ev-idenlce pon this paoit. Some, in~deed, of thef- Gr: Cetlmen, andt particularly thle Declegates from LivJerpool, ha~ve en~deavout- ed to reason down this plain prinlciple ; forrie have palliated it, but there is not onle, I hec- lieve, who does nota more or less, admit it. Some Some, nray root, I believe, have admitted the Slave Trlade Lr be thle chief cause of~ wanrs in, A fri;ca. .Pnny * has called it cthe courarrelntl caufE-fome confess it to be Jometimess theu caufi:: but argoue, th~at it can- not often be fo.--H--erej I must make one oblervaition , which, I hlope, may be done, wvithout offence to an y one, and which I do, once for all, thiough it applies equally to many othe~r evidences uponr this fabjiea. SI mean o~r lay it downi, aIs my principle, thlat evidences, anld efpeciay rintreferd evidences, arle not to be thle ITjudgs of theC argume~nt Inl matters of fa£, of which th~ey speak, I admit thir opetecy;c~ I niani not to fulpeaR ~their credibility, wzith refpea to anly th;ng- thcy fe~e or- hear.T Or the~mselves perinally knlow; b~t-, In reafoninir abourt c'agEs and L'Yfed, I hold thecm thlem to be to- tally moompetenlt . th,,~~- thlerefore, from sub~mittin~g to thecir concidious, in this re- speD,~ I utter-ly d;iford them.. I take their premises readily and fi:;rly; but, upon there premiles, I mluffjudcge fck myfeli: a~nd the 'Livrpool·F Dekgac,,. Houfec, ( 10 ) floufe, I trufk---nay, I perfea~ly' ivell know, will, in like manner judge for itielf. Confident ailertions, therefore, not of faas, but of the JilppfdJ~ confeguencesr of ~fa~s, howv- ever pressed by the Liverpool Deleg~ates, or any other interested persons, go for nothing ;ilnmy efim~ation; anld t is necessary that Par- liamlent thould proceed upon this principle; as w~ell in this as every othler purblic quel- tionl, in whIlch intereffed evidences muff he examinedl. Thus thle Afr-ican Committee hav:e repolrted, that vcery few enormities, in dai~r- opinion, can halve been praftiied inl Afri- ca; beczufe, il forcy years, only twtocomi plaints have been mlade to thiem. I admit the faa to them undoubtiidly ; but, I truss, G~entlemenl will judtge for thelnT~rnelves wThe- th~er Parliamenrt is to reftc satisfied that th~ere are2 no sbul~es in Aifrica, in rfpite of all the potiivie proaofs of 10 many witnefkes on thle spot to t!1e contrary. Whel~therr for in- thmilee, M'r. Wadfi~trom's evidenlce, Dr·. Spaarmanu;, Captain H-ill's, are to go for nothing, maniy of whrom, either inwv thle b3ttle'S, were to~ld by th-e kings themselves, thatr it: wasr for thre iGke of slav~es they w~ent to battle, or conlverfedl with a variety; or" prifonetrs takcn b~y ther~e very means. In truth, an entquiry fr-om the Africanl Com- mittee wheltheur any fojul -play prevails in Africa, is fomewchat like anl application~ to the Cuilotu-houle officers, to know whco thler any fimuggling is goinlg on; .the officer maiy tell yo~u, that v~ery fewc fir~iures are madte, anzd very few frauds come to his k~nowledge; but does it folow~t, that Par- liament· muff agree to a~lil th reafn/rings of the officer; anld, thoughI fina~rgghgrr be ever so notorious thr-oughoutr thc land, mnull ag·ree there is ~1 ino Imgling~, becaus~e the of- ficer reports thait h~e makes very f~-wc sei- Zure~s, an1d foldom hea~rs of it I wvill not believe, therefore, thle mecre opi;nions of Afri- canl traders, concern~ing7S the nature and con-i sequences of the slave trade. It is a trade in1 its princriple molt inevita~bly calculated to fipread difunionI among thle African princes, to sow the fe~eds of every milichief to la- spire enmity, to defkroy humnanity; and it is forpmd inr fradice, by thle moss abun~dan~t ·teft~mony, to have hlad the effe~t in Africa of carrying misery, devanitation, and ruin whrlever~ ( x z .) wvherever its hanleful in~fluence has ext tended. Having now dirplpdd of the frirf part of this fubjlec't, IL must fpcakr of the iltrafft ofC the fa-ces i the~ tt·ef Indics. Thiis, I confers,; inmy owrn opinion, is thle mofr wJrtched part of thle whole fbjea-. more than the- human imagination had caer before conceivedl. I will not accule the L;- verpool merchiants : I w~illallow them--nay, I ws~Il belIerve thecm t-o be meni of h~umanity ; anld I w~ill therefor~e believe, if it we~-re niot for the multitudle of therie wretched odbjeas, if it wecre not for the enormlous magnitudc~e anid extent of the evil whi;ch d~ifrats~ thecir attention from individu!al cafes, a~nd mankes them thi~nk generallyr, and therefo~re less feelingly onl the fubjeac, theyi never wrould hlave pertified in theu tratde. I verily believe, thecrefore, ;f thle wtrtchcd nefsT o~f any on~e olf the many hun;dredl nlegroes flowred in each thip could be brought before their view, and remain L withLInL th'c fIghtU of1 the~ LI f ric nmer- chant·, ( I3 ) chant, thatt here Isno one among them, whose hear-t wouldl bear it ?-Le~t aly one imag~ine to hmimfelf, 6 or 700r of t~e~fe wretches chain- ed two andr twFo, urrTounldId with Velver ob- 306% t~hat is Inauletous and difgruffing, dii- cased, andt thubgghng undter every kinld of wrretchednefs !-How can~ we bear to-think. of such a icene as this ? Onie wo~uld think it hlad bcn etermnined to heap upon them all t-he varieties of bodily pain, for the pur- poie of bluntcing th~e feelinlgs of their mind ; and yet, in this \cry point (to th~ewv the poweT~r of humanl prejudice), the fituationl of the slaves hlas been1 ddb;ribed by Mlr, Norri;s, one of th~e Liverpool declegates, in a mann~cr whichl, I amn ure, wrill convince the Hloufe how in~teren· can draw a film over- the eyes, fo> thick, th~at total blindness could dor no more, and h~ow it is our· duty, thleref-ore~, ro trufi not to thle reafronings ofintereftedi men, or to their wvay of colouring a tranfa~tion. "t Thecir apartments," says M~r. Norris, '" are f~led up as much for their advantage as circumianlces will adm~it.") The right ancle of one indeed is connesetd writh the left ;Iucle of another by a lnall iron fenr,· an~d, if they wri~;th. LC Il,V b.:c~L t'evera1 l malS al-day ; cckery;I a~dz byI way~ of va-riety~, anothecr me;tal of pulle, &c. a~ccording~ to EIuropean ,ft. frer- b3reakl~~dt theyv have water to natJh thcmfelves, w-hile their apartments a;re pe~rfumed wi-th frank~ircnceak and lime- jce. Bfore dinnecr, th~ey are am7ured after the~ manner of their coun~try. The f~oug ands thle dan~ce are promotlEd;" anld, as if the w~ihole was really a funle of pleas~ure and dif- A;pation, it is ~dded, th~at gams of chance are furnith~ed. "L The men play anId f"ing while thr-e wsomen and girls make fanlciful ~inaments wit~h beads, wh·~ich they are plen- tifully supplied withtl." Suchi is the fort of 3rain i n which! th;e L~iverpool Delegates, ,nd particularly Mr;. Norris, gave evidence b~efore th~e Price Counilc~. thie con~curring tefilmony of other wirtne(Tes, the true hlifory is laid ope~n. The slaves, nT!~ he are fame:tlnmes d-'cribedc as rejoicinlg at at ( I5 ) at leavingr their country, that: it is the conl, slant praffice to Jetrni fil tathe nigh~t, left the~y thould be sensible· of their departure. The palfe which M/r. N'orris talks of ar~e borp· beans; and th~e fcantineis, both of wrater and provilionl, wvas furggefied by the very legylatrle of JamaiCca, ;in the rep~ort of their Committee, to b~e a fab~jea thtat called for thlein~terfernce of Parlfiament·. Mr·. Nor- r-is talks of frankilcenfe anrd Jime-juice; wvhen all the furgeonls tell you, the slaves are flowved so close, th~at there is not r~oom to tread among them : and when y-ou hiave it in evidence fr-om Sir Georg~e Youge, thatr even in a nhip wvhich. wanted zoo of hler com- plement, th~e fench was intolerab~le. The long and1 the danlce, ifays Mlr. Norris, are frmitedl. It had been more fa~ir, perhaps, if hle had explained thlat word pur~omoed. The trluth! is, that, for- the thke of exiercifec, there3 mi- [erable wretchecs, loaded w~ith chain~s, op- pressed with dileake and wretchedn~ess, nle -forced to danlce by the ter~ror of the lath, and sometimes by the a~ual uie of it. "1 ," says one of the other evidences, "L wiaS em.Li ployed to dance the men, whle anothr person danced the wTomnen." Such th-en is the meaning~ of the word pr~onwallt; and it mray be obferved-l too, w-ith refped to snood, that an inlfirumenat is iomethuies carried- aiut, ml ordelr to force themll to eat, wshich is the ltrme A;rt of proof~ how- much thley enj~oy thernfelve\·s inl th~at infr,,ce affo. As to thleir finging' ; what:~ hatl we fayr, wheln we are told, that theicr !;ongs are longs of lamenta- tion uponi thecir dcparture, wshich, wrhile thley sing, thley are alwvays in er sin m-,uch1 that one Cap~tain (rnore~ humlanec, aIs I thouljd conlceive himr , therefore~r, than thle reft) thre-atened~ one of th~e wiome~n with a flogging, bcaufeii thle mournlfulnefsci of her song was too painlful for hIss feelings. In order, however, not to trust too much- to any· ( rt of defeription. I will calll the at- tenltIon of the H~ouse to one species of evi- d-ance, whi~chl ;i ablo~lute-ly· ilnfllblel. Death at left, Is a fare grounld of eviden~ce, and th~e prryoportion ofdel·aths wvill n-ot only convs irm.; but, if polibile, wltl even aggravate our fulp~icion of their miCfery inl the tr~ansit. It w~ll b~e found, up:on anI average of all thle thp f hiheviden~ce.ilas b~een givn trpl theC the Privy Council, that· excluSive of thoee who perith before they f~ail, not less ta I24 per cent. perith in tlhe passage. 3efiides these, the Jainaica report tells you, that not less than 41 per cent. die ex2 fhrore befdte the day of fate, which is only a week or two from thle time of landing. One third more die in the seasoning, anld this in' counltry exaatly like their owil, where they are healthy and happy, as forn~e of the eviderices would pretend. The diseases, how~ever, which they contraa on thipboard, the afirin-~ gent washes which are to hide their wounds, and the miichievous tricks us~ed: to-matke .make them up for fate, are, as the Jamaica report says, (a most precious and valuable re- port, ~which I thall oft~en have to advert to) one principal cause of this mortality. Upon the whole, howoever, here is a mortality of about 50 per cent, and this among negroes who are not bought unlef quite hlealthy at firit, and unless (as the phrase is with cat- die), they are found in w~ind and limb. HEow ;hen can tke ~Hous~e refuse its belief to the multaiplief . teffimonies, before the $ 'Privyt privy Council, of the savage: treatmen~t of the Negroes in the middle ~palag~e ?- Nay, indeed, w~hat need is there of any evidence ? The number of deaths ipeaks for~ itself, and makes all such enquiry: superfluous. As soon as ever I had arrived thus far in my invefigiation of the Slave Trade, I con- fess to you, Sir, so enormous, so dreadful, so irremediablee did its wi~ckedness appear, that my own mind was crompletely made up for the abolitionc A Trade founded in ini- quity, and carried on as this wvas, must be abolished, let the 'Policybe what it might,-- let the consequences h~e what they~would, I from4 this- time determined that I wvould never reft till I had effe~ted its abolition. - Such enormqities as these having <mete comne within;z my knowvledge, I tihould not have been faithful to the fg~ht: of my ejregg o the die of my fenfies and my reaggy E ~.I. had thrunk~ from attemptinrg tne. abolition: It is trize, indee~d, my mind was harraffekd beyond ne~afure~; for w-hen Weft India Planters and Mrerchants retorted it upon qe~,.that it was the Britigh Parliament: had authorized this TXrade; Trade : when thedy Taid to me, LL It iS YOur Aas of Parliament,--it is youyr encourage- ment,--it is faith in your lawsJ, in youcr pro- teaion, that has tempted us into this Tradek, and has ·now made it necessary to us·:"2 It became difficult, indeed, what to anfwrer; if the ruin of the Wlelt Indies~ threatened as on the one hand, -while this load of wickedness preffkd' upon us on the other, the alternative, indeed, was awfu~L It naturally furggefied itself to me, how iArange it was that providence, hokever mryferious in its ways, thould so have' con- Htituted the world, as to make one.part of ;t depend for its existence on the depopulation and devaffationz of another. I could not, therefore, help diarufitng the arguments of thofek, who insisted that t~he plundering of Africa, wvas neceffery for the cultivation of the Weft: Indies. I could not believe that the fame ]Being who fo~rbid rapine and bloodthed, had ~made raploe and bloodshed necessary to the well-being ofanyt E 4 part ( 20 ) part of his unirverfe, I felt a conlfidence in this principle, and took the resolution to na upon it : soon indeed the light broke in upon me ; the f~ulpicon of my mind was every day confirmed by encreafrag in- for mation, the truth ~became clear, the evidence I have to offer upon this point, is now decilive and compleat; and I with to observe, with fubmifiron, but with perfeet conviaion of heart, what an ;infance is this how safely we may trust the rules of justice, the diatates of conscience, and the la~ws of Gfod, in opposition even to the seeming im- policy of these eternal principles. I hope now to prove, by authentic evi- den~ce, that in truth the WVeft Indies have nothing to fear from the total and immedi. ate abolition of thle Slave Trade : I wvill enter minutely into th~is poi'nt, anld I do intreat the mnoft exa~t attention of gentlemnen most inte- refied in this part of the question ; the refo-e lutions I have to offer are many and par~- ticular, for the purpo~e· of bringinrg each point amder a separate diieufiain; and thus I hope t hope it will be thewn, that Parliament ·is~ not dlifpofed to~ overlook the inaterefts of the We~rft Indies. The princip le,hIowever, upon whichlfound the neceility of abolition is not Policy but fuji~ce,---but though jufftice be the principle of the measure, yet, 'I truss, I thall diftindly prove it to be reconcileable wvith our t'rueft political intereil, In entering, therefore, into the next bjranch of my fubjea, namely, the actae ofL~aes in. rhe Yeft Idies I would observe, that here, as- in many other cafes, it happens that the owner or principal, genlerally sends out the best orders imarginable, which the manager upon the s~pot may .pursue or not, as he pleaies. I do not accuse even the manag~er olfany native cruelty, he is a person made like oterfelves (for nature is much the [ame in all persons) but it is ~ab~it that generates cruelty --This man looking down upon his Slaves as a set of Beings of another nature fr~om himself, can have no fymliathy for them, and it is sympathy, and nothzng else 13 tham than qympathy, which according;Eo h:~·e-bit; writers and~judges of the fubije~t, is the true ipring of humanity_. Let us alk then whiat are the causes los the moprtality in the We@ Indies -. In the firfk phace, the d~aopbrrtioz of fezes~I; an evil, which, when the ·Slaive Trade is· aboliihed, muff in the course olf nature cure In the Jecnad phaSe, the difor'e~rs cg-t iraEled in rthe mdlZijC f of~j~ge and here let me. touch upon an arguiment for ever use~d by thre· advocates for the ISlave Trade, the fallacy of which is no where mnorp notorious than.l- this place. --It is sa~id to beP the inere] of .the traiderft to dei their slaves wyell : the afkringpsyt waihes, efcarotics, and mnercurial ointmnents by wvhich they are made up for faile, is one aufwer to this 8rguinent. In trhis initance it is not their interest to use .them well ; and 21though in iome refrpt £ts felf-intereft and hlimanityr will go together, yet unhiyppilyl through throughl the -hol~e prog~ress of the Slave Trade, the very eenverfe of thlis principle is continually oc curing. A thlir cause of deaths in1 thle WJcft Indies is exceface labour joinledE whh~lb kpro- per ~food. I mean not to blame thle Weft: Indians, For thlis evil fpriings from the ·very nature of thinigs ;-in1 thiS country the work is fairly pa~id f~or, and difitibuted among out labourers, a ccording~ to the reafonableneis oftlhings; anid if a tradecr or manufa~5turer fin~ds h~is profits decrease, hle retrenchles hais own expellces, he lessens the number ofhis hlands, anld every bratnchl of tradle findls its proper level. In1 the ~efll Indies the whole number of Slave~s remlains wiith the famne mafter,--is thle maftecr pinlched n his pro- fits ? The slave allowa~nce is pinched in con- feqluenlce; for as chanrity begins at home, the duaul gratificaition of thle maiter wTill n~ever be giveni up, so, lonlg as there is a possibility of ma;kingr thle retrenlchlentt fromt the afl lowanlce of thle slaves. The~re is, thereibre, a cofl~anlt tcndenicy to the very minimum withl relpedc ~ to slaves allowanIce; and if in anyi onle ha;rd~ yea theC slaves getr throu,~gh up~on a rctducled allo wancc· firom the li 4 very ( '4 ) very nature ofpan it rnufk happen, that this becomes a precedent upon other occafions;r nor is the grardual deffrudtion of the flaave a consideration fufficient to counteradt the imn- mediate advantage and profit that is got ·by their hard usage. . Here then, we perce'ive again, how the argument of inetreft faidd also with refpled to the treatment of slaves in the W~eft Indies. Interest isundoubtedly- the great ipring of sation in the a~ffairs of mankind; but it -is imtmed'ate and fr~eSent, not future and-dfantintereft, however uiafl, that is apt to adtuate us. We may truftt that mlen wTill follow their interest when: prefeat impulse and interefte orFefpond, 150£l not otherwise, -That this is a true obfers vation may be proved by every th'ing: in- life.~--Wi~hy do we make laws ·to pIunifh merr ? It is their interest to be upright and- virtuous, without these laws : -but there: 1s a pr~eent impulse continually breaking in upon their better judgment; an imnpulfe contrary to their per~manent and known interest, which it is not even in the powRer of-all our laws fufficiently to refrain. It is ridiculous to fiay, therefore, that men will be bound by their interd~t, when pres~ent gain gain or wyhen the force of paflion Is urging them : ·It is no less ridiculous than if we were to fay that a stone cannot be thrown into the air, nor any body move along. the ea~rth,~ beadie the great principle of gravio tat~ion mait keep them for ever fan. The. principle of gravitation is true ; and yet in ipite - o'f it -there are a thoufaud motions which bodies may be driven inato continu- ally, and upoh which we ought as much to reckion as on gravitation itself. This jprini- ciple, therefore, of felf-interefit, whisch is birought in to anfwver every charge of cru- elty throughout the Slave Trade, is not to be thus generally a~dmitted. That the al- 10wance is too thort in the Weft Indies appears very plabli also froma the evidence; the allow~ance in the prifions I conlceive muit be an under allowance, and yet I find it to be some~what liss than this : D~r. ISAnrn (whois· not very favourable to my propo- fcitins, and who by way of evidence wrote a fortof pamphlet agiain me to the Privy Council) has said that even be thinks their food at crop~-time Ptoo little; and I observe f~rom Governor Oxnns Ratemest that he ac- counts counts for their being mnore healthjr Las a es favourable feafotx of the -year, frdm: their; being better f~ed at-the imfa~vourabk~ feafany Another cause o cf thle mortalip~ty off flaatsj is, the dreadful dissoluteness of tihjir: inatt; ners. Here it might be said, rlth:2t~irfe~it reit mult induce the planlters ·ts I witfh :IM~ some rR-der and:decency around their~ famb.;- lies; but in this cafe- also, -it: is flairey.·it-; feltfthat is the mischief. Slaves,- confider; ed as cattle, left without infiru~tti~n-,i withL· out any initiattion of: marriage; fba dpreffe~dl as to have no means:almdit of civ~ilatiottyr w~ll undoubte3dl. -b~e -dissol~ute.; . a;:udi ttii attempts are made to· ratfe them a litte' abovel1 their p~roeaet iSuation, -this· source of :mor-e tality will iemain.: = *· · - ·· Somte ·evidences. indeed ·hav~e:ende~avoured: to disprove that there is any. particular wretchedness among the flave's iri the ~We~lt Indies. Admiral Bairrington1 tells you, he hia seen them look so happy, that h~e has fobmetimes wvithed himself one of them. L~ conceive that, in a cafe like this, an Admi- ral's (~ .27 T) gafils evidence is perha~ps ethe very -work~ tat~ pan be taken. It is as ~if a Kinlg were to judge of the pria~te happiness of ·his fol. gliers by. feeing them on a review d~ay. Ther fight of the lldmiral would no doubt exhi- lerate·..t~heir, sages.; he would fee them lin their bet· elothbes, and they, perhaps, rpight hope 'for: a fevy of the ct~rubs which felr firom th5e Admiral'S tgible; but does it fol- lov -t~hat there 'is no hard treatment of slaves in the Wieft Indies- The Admiral's writh to be orie of there slaves himself, proves, perhaps that he was in an odd humour- at the moment, or perhaps it ·m;ght mean (for ;81 lthe TyPrld knows· his humanity)~, that he could wyith to alleviae their fufferingp, ·by. takipg ai thare VPpq ·himlelb.5 but -qt lead if prfoves nothing of their general aetnreatet;. and, at any rate, it is but a negative proof which affeits oTF the pther ev~cideces~ to the, It is no~w to be ·qrearkred, that all there causes of mortality among the slaves do un- apubt~edly adudlt of a regledy, an~d it is the abolitiaq ( 28 ) a~bolition of the Ilave trade thbat w'ill serve as this remedy. When the manager thall knowc, that a fresh importation is not to be had fromn Africa, and that he cannot re- trieve the deaths he -oceafions by any new purchas~es humanity must be introduced ; an improvement in the iyftem of treating them will thus infallibly be effelted, an afirduous care of their health an'd of their morals, marriage inflitutions, and many other things, as yet little thought of, will enke place;· because they wll be absolutely tieceffaryd Birrths wi~llthus encreafe naturally; in· flead of frethl accefiains of the fame negroes from Africa, each generation will then im- prove upon the former, and thus will the. Weft Indies themselves eventually profit by the abtolition of the Slave Trade. 13ut, Sir, I will thew by experience al- ready had, how the rhultiplication offlaires depends upoa their good treatment. All sides agree, that slaves are much better treae. ( 29 ) ed now than they were ~thirty years agos in the W~ef Indies, and that there is ·every day' a growmrig improvemzent. I will thew, thterefore, by authentic do- cuments, howv their numbers have encreafed (or rather how the decreak~e has lessened), hi the fa~me ·proportion as the treatndent has improved. There were in Jamaica, in the year I76 r, r47,"00 slaves; in the year r r787 there wNere 256,000 ; in all this period of 26 years, I65,ooo were imported, which ivould be upon an av~erage 2rSo per annum, there bein~g, on an average of the whole z6 years, I xIcI5th per cent. yearly diminution of the number of slaves on the island. In fa&, however, I find that the diminu- t-ion in the first: period, when they were the worit used, was 21l per cent. in the next 7 years 2t was r per cent. and the average of the last period is 3-Sths per cent. It ihould also be observed, that there has lately been, on account of the war, ·a much more than ( 30 ) than ordinary diminution, which· was the cafe~ also in the former war, besides that z5,ooo have been dest~royed by the late Fa- mine and -hurricanes. Upon these premises I ground a conclusion, that in Jamaica there is at this time an aduzal encreafe of popu- lationa among the slaves- begun. It may f~airly be presumed, that since the year 1782 this has been the cafe, and that the births by this time exceed the deaths by about 1000 or r roo per annlum. It is true, the fexres are not altogether equal; but th~is differenlce is so imall, that if the proper number of women were added, the births to be expeaed in consequence wrould be no more than 300· per annum, which fh~ewrs this to be a matter of little consequence. In the island of Barbadoes the - caf~e is nearly the fame as at Jamaica. In St. Chriffophers, there are 9600 fe- males, and ro,300 males: so t-hat an in- crease by birth, if the treatment is tolerable, may fairly be expeaed. ( 31 In Domlnica, Coverniror Ord wrl.tes,- thant there is a natural ;increase~, thiough.z it is yet incomideirable, and; thioughi the finagglinlg in tha;t ifandr makecs it not alppear so fa;vour- ably. Ja Nevis thrile are? ablolutel~y five wtomnca to f'.>ur men~l. In Anit;igua, thei ep~idemical dliforders have lately cut oif I-4th· or J -Sthl of the negrr!oes but thi~s cannoict beu expeaicd to reiturni, efpc- cila1y wihen the grandlc cause of cpidemlical disor-ders is remnovedl. In Becrmudas and thc Bahiamas there is adi nacual increafec. In Mlontleirrat: thecre is much the ~fame de. crease as there has been in~ Jamaica, which is to be accounted for by thle cmigr;;;ions fromn thiat ifalnd. Such, Sir, is thle RAnte of th~e ijgroes in our Weft In~dial islands; anld it ad <B~t`Oy foundecd uponl authenrtic diocknr:1;izi-sfom 3 then!ce, ( 32) thence, but it is also confirmed by a variety of other .proofs. 1Mr. Long, whose works are looked up to in the islands as a fort of W6eft India Gos~pel upon these fubjeats, lays it down as a princ~iple, that when there ~are two negroes upon an· island to three hogs- heads of sugar, the work for them will be so moderate, as to ensure a natural increase ; and there is now much more than this pro- portion. It can be proved too, that a va- riety of individuals, by good usage, have more than kept up their flock. But, allowing even the number of negroes to be deficient, fu~ll there are many other resources to be had--the w5aste of labour whoich now prevails--the introdu~tion of the ~plough and other machinery--the divilion bE ~workr, which in free and civlized coun- tries, is the graud source of weakhf-the re- duttion of the number of negro servants, of whom not less than from 20 to 40 are kept: in ordinary families.--All' there1 tl ouch up- on merel aS hints to thew that the Weit Itndies-are not berewed-a ofl -lihe sneis of cultivating their eftaies, as [ome perfdus have ( 3s ) hlave feared. But, Sir, even if thlere furppo- fiidons ·are all sal~e and idle, if every one of these Auccedani~a (bould fail, I flill do main- tain, that the Weil India planters can and will indemnify themselves by the incr-eased price of th~eir produce in our market ; a prm-~ ciple which is To clear, that in questions of taxation, or any other quefiton of policy, this fort of argument wvould undoubtedly be admitted. lI ay, therefore, that the Weft Indians, who~ conztend against the abolition, are non- suited in every part of the argument. Do they fay that importations are necef-- fary ? I have thewn that the very numbers in~ the gang may be kept up by procreation. Is this denied ? I fagy, the plough, horses, machinlery, domeffic slaves, anld all the other fuccedania will ALpply the deficiency. Is it perfxited that the deficiency can in no way be supplied,· and that the -quantity of produce muff diminith? I then erevrt to that. irxefragable argumen~t, that the iricreafe of price will make up their 10fs, and is a clear ultimate security. C I have 1 have in my hand the Extra& from a pamphlet, which~ slates, in very dreadfidl colours, wFhat thodimnds and tenls of thou- fluids will be ruined; how our wealth will be impaired ; one third of our comnmerce cut off for ever ; howr our roanu fatures will droop in consequence, our Jand-tax be raised, orur marine destroyed, wh~ile France, our na- tural enemy, and rivall, wvill ikengthen her- self by our wteakneis. [A cry of assent be- ing heard from fev-eratl parts of the House, M~r. W~ilberforce added,) I beg, Sir, that Gentlemzen will not millake me. The pam- Phler, from which this prophecy is taken,. was ·written by Mr. Glover in I774,· on a very different occafion--and I would there- fore afki Gentlemen, wvhether it is indeed fulfilled ? Is our wealth decayed ? our com- mencrce cut off? our manufaatures and our? marine destroyed ? Is France raised up- on our rumns r---On the c~ontrary, do wes n~otfee, by thle ;itnfae of this pamphlet, howv men in a defpondidg moment will pic- ture to themselves the, milt gloomy confe- quences, from causes by no means to be apprehended. We are all, perhaps, in this refped~, aPt iometimes to be carried away ( 35 Y by a frightened intagination-tike die poor negroes, wve are all, in our turn, flibjett to ObibJa; and when we have anl interest tod bias· us, wvce are carried away tenl thousand times t~he more. The African merchants told. us last y-ear, that if lels than two men to a tonl were to be allowed, the trade could not continue. Mr. Tarl~eton, inficuated by the wrhole trade of Liverpool, declared the farne; told us that commerce would be ruined, and our manufalures would migrate to France.- We have petitions on the table from the manufaaurers, but, i believe, they are not dated at Havre, or any port in France; and yet it is certainl, that, out of twienty thips last year from Liverpool, not less than thir- teen carried this ruinoits proportion of less than two to a ton., It is said that ~Liverpool will be undone-- the trade, says Mr Dalzdel, at this time hlangs upon a thread, and the ~fialleft: mat- ter wiill overthrow it, Ct 2 be.l ( 36 ) I believe, indeed, the trade hangs upon a thread ; for it is a losing trade to Liverpool at this time. It is a lottery, in which forne men have made large fortunes, chiefly by. being their own insurers, wTchile oth~ers fol-: lowt the example of a few lucky adventu·- rers, and lose money by it. It is absurd to fay, therefore, that Liverpool will be ruin- ed by the abolition, or that it will feel the diffe~rence very s~ensibly, since the wrhole outward-bound tonnage of the Slave Trade amounts only to I-fifteenth of the outward bound tonnage of Liverpool.-W~e ought to remember also, that the Slave Trade aitual- ly w-as fulpended during some years of the wyar; nor did any calamity follow from it.. .As to thipping, our fitheries and other trades will furnish so many innocent and bloodless ways of employing vessels, that no mis~chief need be dreaded from this quarter. The nexrt fubjea which I thall touch up- on, is, the inrfluence of the Slave Trade on olur malrrinC; and, iditcad: of being a benefit to our ~sailors, as fame hav-e ignorantly ar- gued, I do assert it is their . Thle gravse 3 evidence· evidence upon the point is clear : for, by the indefatigabl~e inldufry, anld public pi-i rit of Mr. Clarkfon, thle muff~er rolls' ofall th~e slave thips have been collefied and com- pared with thos~e of other trades; and it appears,· inl the reflult, that more sailors die;, la o year jn the Slave Trade, than die mr twmo years in al our other trades put to- gether. It appears, b~y t-he muster rol~ls, to 88S slave thips wjhich failed from Liverpool in 1787, that thze original crews consist~ed of 3'?70 failors--of these only r428 returned : 64z died, or were loft~, and rr oa wvere dif- charged on the voyage, or deferred, either in Africa, or the WCell-Judies. It appeared t~o rue for a long time unlaccountable, howr so~ vafl: a proportion of there sailors thould leave their thips in the Well Indies; but I shall quote here a2 letter from Governor Parry at Barbadoes, which explains this dif- ficulty : C 3 Extlras ( 38 ) Extraaf of a knrler fromz GoverorT ~Parry, to Lord Sydny, dated May 2 3, 1788, Tran/- ininflg twco PEtitions. CC To the African trade on the coast I cannot vtenture to speak, not being ~fuflici- ently acquainted wiith it; but arn fearful such monfirous abuses have crept into It,. a to make the ;inerference of the Britith Legii; lature ablolutely necessary; anld have to la- ment, that it falls to my lot~to po~iffefs your Lordship with the unpleafing~ information contained in the enclosed petitions, which1 is fully demonfirative of the thameful pradices carried on in that unn~atuy-al com- mnerce." He then ipeaks of Itaving seen Captain Bibby, wvho is the person mentioned in the following pertitons, though the other Cap- tain had endeavoured! to prevent it; and, he says, he has sent back the pawns (mention- ed also in the petitions) to theirentaged pa- rents--adding, "L That: I cannot help h: v ing my suspicions; and I wras ye~terday told, that h~e had private infiru~tions from the petitioners not to prefeant the petitions G 39 ) to me, if 131bby would quietly resign the Pawns : which leads me to believe there was a general combination in thiere unwar- rantable pra~ices, among all the masters of the vefelks then inz Cameroons river." He then comes to the fubjeQ of the Bri- dish failors--" Your Lordship (says he) is perfea~ly informned of the nlefarious prac- tices of th~e Africanz trade, andrl the cruel mlanner in which the greater number of the rnafters treat· their seamen. There is [c~arce- ly· a ve~el in thant trade that calls at Barba- does, from wuhich I have not a complaint made to me, either by the maser or the seamen; but more frequently the latter, who are often thanmefully ulfed; fbc the As- rican traders at home, being obliged to fenld out ther thips very firong handed, as well fr-om the unhealth~iness of the cl~mate~, as the necefi~t~y of guarding th~e Slaves, soon feel the expence of feam~en's wages t and as soon as they came amongit there islands, and all dan~ger of influrreaion is re~moved, the malters quarrel with their seamen, up, on~ the mast frivolous pret~ences, and turn thecm on thore on the firit iflanld they flop C 4 at, at, sometimes wi;th, and sometimes with-~ out pay'ing them their w~iages; and Barb~a- does being the wi;ndw~ard Ctation, has gene- rally a aruge proportion of there men thrown in upon her; and sorry am I to fay, that many~ of these valuable fubjleas are, froth facknefs, and the dire necefllty of entering into foreign~ employ For maintenance, loft, to the British nation." Thus do we fe~e how M·r. Clarkfon's ac- couint of the muffer-rolls is verified, and why it is that so vall a proportion of sailors in the slave ships is loft to this country.-- But let us touch also on.the petitions which. Governor Parry speaks of. It seems that thle Captain Bibby before mentionled had carried off from Africa thirty of the King's childrea and relations, left in pawrrn with him, who retaliated by fitzing five English Captains. These Captains dilpatch a vefiel with peti- tions to Governor- Parry, to fend backr the King's so~ns, in order to their ownr release.- Nowr, Sir, let us mark the itHIe of thlefe pe- titions-'" I James A'G~apty,-Tl WCilliam WCilloughby, &rc. being on thore on the execution of our biufinefs, were seized by a body C 4 1 body of armed !patives, who lay in ambath in order to~ take us."- Whati~ l villains musk thlefe Africans be, to reize 10 designedly such friends as the Br·itith? fbb~j~eas, . and this mzerely with a view to get- back their own c~hldren !--0 This," fayrs the petition, "( th~ey effected, anrd dmragged us to their town, where they treated us in a most fa- va~ge and barbarous manner, anld loaded us wvithl irols."--Obferve, Sir, the indign~ant spirit of thele Captains-BRritith~ fr-eemen to b~e loaded with irons ! WLhite mnen inz cuft0- dy to there b~arbarous Negroes !--But what was the caule of this abominable outrage ? "O acc 013Count, ~ fay they, "' of the imnpru-~ dent behaviour of Captain Robert Bibby"-- But: what wans the rimpr'udence?-C who carried off thirty pawns, who wvere the King: and tradners' fans, daughters, and relations.". - H-E-ere, thenl, we have a piaulre of the equitable spirit in w-hich; this tr~ade is caririd on.--There2 Princes and Chiefs, who, bLy Captain B~ibby's imp~rudnce, had loft all thecir famniies 'uid cluildren, pr:opole, howr- ever, to sa~tIsfy evepy demoand, and to give these: Captains their Ib~erty, provided only they may have their children lack agailn.- But But, fay twvo off he Captains, "C We, fhid- ing that we could not comply with their extrava~cgant conditions, did endeavour to re- gain ouir libertyr, w~hich wFe effeaerd. But- wec verily believe, that our refpealve voya- ges are entirely ruinled, the natives beinlg determiredl to make no further trade w~ithi eit~her of us, nor pay the above debts, un- til their sons, daughtecrs, &rc. ar-e return- ed, and debarring us of wvood, water, or anyr country proviion~s; thierefore we thall be forced to leave thne river immediately, and, on that account, we thinkr our voyages rutinedl, as before." ]It has been urged by iame persons, in proof of the ·wickd barbaricy of thefc King~s and Chieifs, that they pawn their ownl chil- dr~en, from which it is concluded, thtln th~ey feel no fort of aff~c~ion for them, and! thereforte deserve all the evils which we in- friIa upon them. The contrary is in truth the cafe: for the Captain~s, knowr~ing the affeaion they have for their relations, are w4illing to: take them~ as hoffages for very consider-able debts, and ( 43 . are ifenfible of their ideal value, thoughi the reall value is trifting; and the feene which Ihave just laid before you very fairly nhews both the general spirit of our Captains, and: the wretched situation to which our corn- mercee has reduced these African Princes:;-- end if, Sir, at the very moment when Par- liarent was known to be enquiring into this trade, these abuies are thus boldly per- fified in, how canl we suppose that any re- gubI~tions, or any palliatives, can overcome these enormities, and jufitfyr our continuY soce of the trade ?--It is true, the Afcrican Committee hear little of the matter: -for we find, that even thes~e Captains, who were in prifonl, infrudied the bearer of their petition, not to apply to Grovernor Parry, except in the lalt neceffityv, but merely to get back the King's sons, meaning quietly to comprom~ie matters with Captain Bib- by ; and if it: were not for the vigilance of Governor Parry, th~e truth would never have come out. Ju like manner, we find, that: althoug~h veryr fepy filors, when they come to Liverpool, go into, an expensive prosecution of their.Cap~tains, yet Governor .Parry hears of complaints argainft them eve- ( 44 ) ry dlay; and we find,~ that Jultice Otley, in the ifanrd of St. Vin~cent's, where lav is· cheap, both~ hears their griev~ances, and rel drefles them. T-here is one othler argtemenlt, ;n my op;i- nion a very wreak and abfuird one, which many persons, h~ow~ever, have much dwtelt 12pon-I meanI, thant, if wce re~ilnquith the flare trade, Firance wil~l take it up.--If the slave tracle, be su~ch as I have deferibed it, and if the Honf~e ;s also conlvinlced of this-- if it hte inl truth both wvicked and impolitic, we cannrot w~ith a greater mis~chief to France than that the th~ould adopt it.-FI;or the fake of` France, however, anld for the fake of humanity, I truf1--Inay, I am fulre-- ae will not. France is too enilightened a nia- tion, to begin pufhling a scandalous as well as ruinous traffic, at the very time wvhen En~gland fees her folly, and resolves to give it up. It is clearly n.0 arg-ument whattever: agaInlft the wickednefr of the trade, that F~rance will adopt it :--For those~ who ar- guec thus may argue eqlually, that w-e may rob, murder, an~d commit any crime, w~hichi any one clfe wiould have committed, if we did ( 4s ) did oro.--The truth is, that, by; otur ex- ample, we shall produce the contrary efFect. If we refuse the aboalition, we shall lie, therefore, under the twofold guilt, of know- ingly perfiiftig in this wicked trade our- fe~lves,ald,as fatras we can,of ind~ucing France to do the farne.--Let `us, therefore, lead thle wvay--let th~is enligahtenled 'country take precedence inr this noble cause, nad we thatl fioon find that Firance is not backward to follow, nay, perhiaps, to accompaniy our fleps.-1If they thould be matd enough to adopt it, they will have every difadhvantage to contend with They muff buy the ne- groes much dearer than we; the mannufac- tures they fell must probably be ours; 2a expensive floating fa~tory, ruinous to the health of sailors, whichr we have hitherto maintained muff: be set up; and, after all, the trade can serve only as a fort: of Gib- ra~tltar upon which they may spend their firength, while the produtive branches of their coinmerce must in proportion be neg- letled and fla~rved. But I have every ground for believing that the French will not be thus wicked and abfurrd;\ Sabf~urd; Mlr. Neckar, the enlightened mid niffer ofthat countryp, a man ·who has in- troduced moral anzd religious principl·es into Govrernment, more than has been common with many miniffers, has aftually recorded his abhorrence of the Slave~ Trade : he has under his ownr hand in his publicationr on the financces pledge-d himself, as it wecre, to the " Extnrc? from Mr. Nc~ker's Treatise on the Adminiffra- tion of the F~inanrcs of France. Vol. I. ch. 13. The Colonies of Fran~ce contain as we have seen, near fth+. hundjred thousand Slaves, and it is from the number of those wa-rtches, that che: inhabitants set a value on thecir PlantationB* What a fatal prorpec8! andl howS profound a fubjeat for re, flcr~ion !--lb5s! how· inconfeqluent w~e are both in our mo- rality, and our p~inciples. 11'pc prech up bumanity, Ind yet ao eeryr Year to blad in chains twienty thoualand natives of Africa ! W'e call the MCoors barbarians and ruffians, becadre they attackr the liberty of Europeans, at the rifkoftheii* own; y-er there Europeans go, without danger, and as mere fpecu-. latrors to pur~ch~af slaves, by gratifying thle cupidfity of their matterl, and excite all those bloody scenes which are the uiual preliminaries of this traffck! iIn thortr, we pride our- felvesc on the fiuiperiority of man, ::nd it is with .reason we d ilcover the fb~perrioriy in the wonderufu and myllerious unfolding of the inltelkanaul famble;s; and yetr a trilling dif- ference in the hair of the head, or in the colour of the gpii dermis, is iuffcir-re to chng~e our respecT into contempt, and to engage us to place Beings, like ourselves, in the rankr of thore animals, d-void of reason, wvhom we fabhjea to the. y'oke that wre may- make are of their ifrength and of their idiact at command, abolition abolition, and it is impossible that a man can be so loss~ to all sense of decency, and com-; monl con~fiffncy of charatter, as not to for- ward b~y every influence in his powler, a cau le in which he has so publicly declared himrelf. There is another anecdote which. I mention here with pleafaire, which is, that the King o~f F~rance very lately being re- quested to difiblve a society set up in Francep for the abolition of the Sflave ITrade, madle anfiver, (; that he certainly thould not, for thlat he wavs very glad it exifkdd." I believe, Sir, I have nlow touched upon' all the objeflions of any consequence, which are made to the ablolition of thlis Trade. When we confider thle vastness of te Conlti- nent of Africa ; when wve refledt how all other countries hlave for some centuries pas 1, hseen advancing in h~appiness and civilization; when we thj~ik how in this f~ame period all improvement in Afr-ica has been defeated bty hier intercourse with Britain; when we reflea how it is ~e ourselves that have de- graded thecm to that wfretc~hed brutithnelss anda barbarity wvhich we now plead as the juffification of our. guilt; hoiw the 8 iay Trade ( 4-S ) Trade has enJavezd thJeir mbuh, blackrened th-eir chatraaer and funk themn so low in the scale of an~imal beings, that: some think the very apes are ofa hiigher class, and fancy the Ou-rang Outanl~g has given them the go-b~y.-- WC'hat a mortification muf1- we feel at having so long neglec~ed to thbik~ of our guilt, or to attempt any reparation: It feemns, indeed, as if we had determined to forbear from all interference until thle mneafure of our folly anld wickedness was I0 full and complete; un- til the impolicy which eventually belongs to vice, wcas become so plain and glaring, that not an individual in the counltry thould refuse to join in the abolition : It seems as if w-e had waited until the persons most inte- ri~edl ithould be tired out with the folly and nefaci~oufixefs of the trade, and thould unite in petitioning againfk it. Let us then make such amends as wte carr· for the mifchiefs we have done to that un~- happy Continent : Let us recolledE what Europe itftlf wTas no longer ago~ than three or four centuries. Wrhat if I thould be able to thew this Hodie that inl a civilized part of Elurope, irr the time of our Henry II. there weire tpvere ipeople wiiho a28ually fold th~eir ownrt children7 ? wh'at, if I thould tell them, that England itfelfwas that country ?what if I thould pointr out to them that the very place wr~here this inhuanan trafiec was carried on. wat·s the City o(`Brifol ? Irelatnd at that time died to drive a coni~derable trade in slaves, wi~th thlefe, n~eihbouring barbarians; but a great plague having infested thle country, the Irish~ were fharck wi~th a panic, fufpacd (I am thrce veryv properly) that the plague wras *1 pulnifhment fient from Heaven1, for the fin ofth~e Slave Trade, and th~erefore aboliihed it. All 1 ask, thecrefore, of thle people of B~riffol, -is, that they would b~come as civi-. lIzed. nbw, asIrithrnen were four hundred years ago. Let us put an end at once to thisinbulman traffic,--let: us flop this efFx-. flon of humnan blood. The true way to virtue is by writhdrawving from temptation;-- Jet us thenr withdraw fr~om thefie wr-etched Africans, thos~e temptat~ions to fraud, vio- lenxce, cruelty, anld inljuffice, which the. Slave Trade furnithes. W2herever the fun, thines, let us go round thie world with him diff~iding our beneficence·; but let us not. traffic, only that we may set Kings against D their ( So ) their Subj~ects, SubjeAs againfit their Kinlgs, fowiing discord inl every village, fear aird terror in1 every family, setting mii;ons of our felIlow rcratures a hunting each other for slaves, creating fairs and markets for human flesh, through one whole continent: of the wr~orld, and under the name of policy, concealing from ourk~lves all the baseness and iniquity of such a traffic. Wihy may wve not hope, ere longr, to f~ee Hons-tow~sns el~iabli~hed onl the confi of Africa; as theyv were on the Baltic ? It: is said the Africans are idle, but they are not too idle at least: to cat~ch one anlother : seven hundred to one thouCuid tons of rice are 2nnually bought of them; by the finme rule, why thould we not buy mo-e : at G~ambia one thoufhnd of them are seen continually at work:Z: WhyI f ~ould n~ot famel mnore thousands be feit to wvork in th~e ·fame m1anner ? It is the Slave Trade that cadecs their idleness, and every othecr milhchif. WLCe are told by o~ne wltnefsr, "C they fell ones another as thety can;" and w5hile they canl get brandy by catching one another, no wTond~er they are too idle for -any regula!Tr wtork. I. have ( 5: ) I hlave onle word~mor-e to add upon a mxoft materiall point; but it is a point so self evi- dent, that I thall be extremnely thort. It will appear, from every thing which I have said, that it is not regulation, it is not mere palliatives, that can cure this enrormous evil :--Total abolition is the only poiGble cure for it.iThe Jamaica report, inldeed, admi~ts much of thle evil, but recommends it to us, so to r-eg~ulate the trade, that no per- fabs th~ould be kidtnapped or made sla~ves orantrary to the cullom of Africa. But may th~ey not be made slaves untjuflly, and yet by nzo meanrs contralry to the curiom oss Afrrica?2 I h~ave thewn thley miy ; for all thle customs of Africa are rendere~d favagre and unljuft througrh the influence of this trade : besides how~ can w-~e difcl·riinate between t~he thaves julily and unjuffly made ? Canl we know them by phyliognomy or, if we could, does any man belie~ve tha~ thle Britida Cap- rnais can, by any regulation in this country, be prevailed upon to refuse all fach thaves as have not been fairly, h~on~etly, and upl rightly ennlayed ? Biut granting even that they thouldJ do this, yet how would .the ]D 2 re- ( 52 r~jeacd Dlaves be recomnpenfed They are -brought, as wr~e are told, from three or four thousand miles off, and exchangedl like cattle from one hand to another, until they rea~ch the coalt. WVe fee thlen that it is the exiffence of the Slave Trade th~at is the sp~ring of all thlis internal traffiic, and that the remediy cannot be appX;clk wcith~out abo- lItion. Again, as to the middle passage, the evil is radical there also; thle M/er- chants pzro't de~pends upon thle number that can be croudetd together, anld upon the thortners of their allowvance . Aff~rinI- ge~nts, elc~arotickrs, and all the other arts ofm~ini~g them up for sale, are of thle very essence of thet trade; thes~e arts w;Il be c~on~- cealed bc-h from the purchaler anld the le- giflature; theyv are necceflnry to the owner's -profit, and they willt be praaile~d. Again, chains and arbitrary treatmentr muff be used in tranfportingr them; our seamen muff be taughti to play the tyr~ant, and that depra. vation of manlners among them ( which fome'very judicious persons have treated of, as the very worit part of this buliners) canl- not be hindered wihile the trade itlelf con- tmnues. As ( sa ) As to thez slave merch~ants, they have al- Iready told you, that if two slaves to a toul are no~t permitted, thre trade- cannlot continue; so that th~e ob~jealious are don~e away by thems~elves on this quarte~r; andr in the WiCeft Indies, I have Ifcthew that thie abolition is the~ only poflible flimulus whereby a regard to population, and consequently to the hiap- pinefs of the negroes, canl be effec~ually eX- cited in those ;lands. I t~russ, therefore, I have thewvn, tha;t upoa every grou nd, thec total abolition ought to take place. I hlave urged mnany things which? are nlot ry own leading motives for propo- sing it, since I have wiithed to thew every defecription of Gentlemeni and particularly the: Weft Indian planters, who dese~rve every attention, th-at thte abolition is poitic upon their own principles allo. Policy, however, Sir, is not my prinlci- pie, and I[ am nlot ash~amed to lay is, There is a principle above everyv thing thatr is po- litical; and wh~en I refiedt on the coramand which says, CL cl'hou salt do noa murder," b~e- Jieving the auth~ority to be divjne, howT pan D 3 I dare ( so ) I dare to set up anyr Ireafnings of my own against it ? An~d, Sir, w~hen~ we think of eternity, an~d of the future consequences of all human conduat, what is thlere inl this life that th~ould make any inan contradia2 the didastes of his consc~ience, the prinlciples of juffice, the laws of religion, and of God. Sir, the nature anid all the circumitances of this trade are nowT Jaid open to us; we c.:n nlo longer plead ig~norance,--we cannot erdde it,--it is now anl objea placed before us,-wne cannot pass; it; wve may spurn it, we~ may; kick it out of our way, but. we can-- not turn~ aside so as to avoid feeing it; f~ior it is broug-ht now so direc?ly before our eyes, that· t~his House must decide, and muff juffify to ali the wrrorld, anld to the-ir own confcincelcs, the rccitudei of the grounds and prin~ciples o~f their decision. A Society has been eftab~ilithe for the ab~oL JItion of this trade, in which~ Dissenters, Quakers, Churchmenl-in w~hich the most: confrcientious of all perfu~affons have all uni- ted, anld made a common cause in1 this great question . ( ss 4queffion. Let not Parliament be thle only bodyj thlat is infenfble to the principles of -nationa~l jufce. LeJt US make reparation to Africa, so far as wve can, bjy eliablflihing a trade upon true commercial prinlciples, and wre halal soon finld the re~titude of our con- dult rewarded, by the benefits of a regularr and a growYing commerce. If hall now move the several Refolutionls, <upon which I do not aik the Houfle to de- cide to-night, but shall confider the debate as adjourned to an~y day next week that wa~jy be ~thoughlt most convenient. RE t~ S O LU T QN S. ElHAT the number of slaves amnnually carried from the coast of Africa, in BEritilh vessels, is fuppared to be about 38,000 Thlat thle number annuallly carried to the Brtifhl WNel India Islands, has (on an average of four years, to the year q378 meclurive) amou!nted to about - 22,500 D 4 That ( 56 ) That the number annually retainr·d in the said Islands, as far as appears by the Cuffom Houle accounts, has accoaunted, on the fnlme average, to about, - - r7, t0oo TIHAT much thre greater number of the nerfioeS, carried aw~ay byi European reffetls, are brougtl~ from the interior p~arts of the c~ontnelnt of Africa, and many of thiem fomn a very grrcrea difoualce. Th~at no precise informarian appears to hlave been obtained of th~ man~ner in which thes-e per. fans have been m!ade :iav es. Butr that forom the accounts, as far as any have bree procusetd on thlis fabje&I, wi;th reCfpdk t~o tle slaves brought iiom the1 interior: parts of Alfrica, and from the informat~ion which h~as been recerived repdn the countries nea~r er o th cd, h slav;es may in general bet clil-id undter fomle of the foliowing defrcri atio~s : lit. Prisoners take~n in war. ?d. F~ree person: fail for d<kht, or on account of re~l or imputed crimers, p~articjlarly adultery anti wcitchlcraft; in which cnles they are freqb~entlyr fold witih their wfhole familiies, and fametim~les for the profit of those by wrhomn they are condemlned.l 3d. Do. 3d· Domeic slaves fokci for the profit of their - maif ters; in some places at the will of the maiters and in Ibome pla~ces, on be-ing condecmned for real or imputed crim-es. 4th~. Persons mad~e thaves by various aas of op- preflfion. viocknce, or fraudl, com~mitted either by the P'rinces and Chiefs, of thlofe coruntries on thleir fubjeas, or byl private individua;ls on each othier or, laltly, by Eturopeans e~n~gad in this traffic. 111. THA2T the trade carried on by Europlen nat- tions on thet coat~ of Afr~icai, for thec purchase of slaves, has necef~arjly a tenldency to ccation fre- quent and crue~l wars amuongr the nativecs, to pro- duce unjult conviations and puniflunents for pre-. tended or aggravat'"(d crime:., to encouragSe adts of opprceion, vickence and fraud, and to obilruft the natulr:rl courfie of civilization and improvem~ents in those countr-ies. I V. THAT the continent of Africai in its Present` Rtate, furni~les several vlaluable articles. of com- merce hlighly important to thze trade an~d manu- faaures of this ~kingdom, and which are in a greiat medure peculiar to diart quarter of the globe s. and th~at thiat the foil and climate have been found, -by ex- perience, well adapted to the production of other articles, with wfhich we are now either wrholly, or in great part, Arpplied by foreignr nations. That an extensive commerce wvith Africa in there commodities, might probably be fubitituteld in the place of that which is now carried on in slaves, to as at: lealt o afford a renum for the f~ame quanarty of goods as has annually been, carried thither in BriUtih veffrels. And, lafflyr, That such a commerce mnighlt rea- Aonably be exipeeled to increare in proportion to thie progress of civ'ization and improvement on that continent. THAIT cthe Slave Trade has been found, by- exu-. penience, to be pecuia~rliy injuriouls and dellructive to thie Brizilh Teamen who have been employed therein; and that the mortality amongi them has been much~ greater tha2n in his Maefcty's thijps ilationed on the coait of~frica, or than has been utiza in Bricith veffe~s emnployved in any othler trade. THJAT the mode of tranfp~rt~ing the slaves from Africa to dle Weft Indies necelarily expoles them ( 39 ) to many and grievous fuffe~ring-,, for which no re- gulation can provide an adeqcuate remedy; andl that, in consequence thereof, a large proportion of them has annually perifhedd during the voyage. VIIZ. THAT a large pr-oportion ofthe slaves; to tranf- ported, has also perifb~ed in the harbours in the Werlt Indies previous to their being fold- That this loss is slated by· the assembly of th~e lfand of Ja- maica at about four and a h~alf per cent. of the number imported; and is, by medical persons of experience in that Iflalnd, aleribed, in great meca- fiure, to direales contraacd during the voyage, and to the mode of treatm~ent on boarld the fhi~ips, by which those diseases have been sup~pressed for a tim~e, in or~der to render the slaves fit for immedii- ate falIe. VI II. THAT thelors ofnewly imported Negroes, with- in the firff dirce yecars after their importation, bears a large proportion to dile whole number imported. IX. T IIl A T the natural increase of popiulation, among the Slaves in the islands, appear to have been impeded principally by the following causes . x ft. The inc quality of the number of the iexsc in the importations from AriicaZ. 2d. The ge~neral dissoluteness of manners among the Slaves, and the wantt of pIroper regulatiojns for the encouragemnent of m~r-riage~rs, and of rearing childlren. 3d. Particular diseases which are prevalent a- mong them, and which are in l;hme in~fln~cs atrrli- buted to too s~\evec labour or rigorous trealtme~nts andl in others to inf~ufficent or imp~roperr f~ood~. 4th. Those diseases wh~ich affedc' a large propoar- tion of Negro children in thch infan~cy, aInd those to wvhich the NTegroes newrly imported froml Alfr-ical havre been found to be particularly liable. X. FTHAT~ the wh1ole number of S1::ves In the illand of Jamnaica, in 17 6 8, was about x - - 6,coo 3 ?THAT the number in 11774l wa~s fla- tod by Governor K~eith, about r I93>3o o; Anid, that the num~ber in December r787, as ~thted by Lkiutenant Governlor Clarke, we~s about - -56js,000. T'hat, ( 6> That, by compar~ing t~here number wilh thlenumbed imlported into and retained in the illand, in diefevehil years from r768 to '774F inclusive, as appearng~ from the acounts delivered to the committee of trade by Mr. Fu~ller s ands in the fera~lcri years from Ip77 ulclufive, to I787 also inclusive, as apperinlg by th~e accounts delivered in by the mInfe~tor General; and allowing for a loss of about one twenty second pa3rt by deaths on hlup-board after entry, as Rtated in thle Report of the Assembly of dile said If and of ~Jamaica, it appeanrs, That the annual excess of deaths above births in the fnllad in the whole period of nineteen yests, has been in the proportion of about seven eighths per cent. computing on the mediumonumber of Slaves inl thelflalnd durino cthat period. That In the firit fixu years of the Fadid nineteen, the excess of deaths was in the proportion of ra- ther more than one2 on every hlundred on the medium number. That in the last thirteen years of the said nine- teen, the excess of dieaths was: in thle proportion of about t~hree-fifths on every hlund~red on the medium number s and that a num~ber of Slaves, amounting to 15,000, is Rtaced by the report of th~e illand of Jamalica to have perithed, duringr the larttr perijod mn consequence of repealted hurricanes, and of the want of foreign Applies of proviiions. ( 62 ) XL, Tihact the whole number of Slaves in the inflad ofBarbazdoes was, in the year 1764, according to the account given in to the- Committee of Trade by Mr. B,-aithwaite, 70,706 That in 1774·, the numnber wasi, by the Gune account 74,8 ·4 In r780, by ditto -- - 63,270 In 1781, after the hurricane, accordJing; to the Famte account -- 633448 In 17 86, by ditto - 62,115 That by comparing there num~bers with the num- ber imnported into thirs illand, accordingo to the farne account, (n~ot: alow-ing for any re-exportation) the annual excess of deaths, above births, in the ten years from I764 to 1;'4, waLs in the proportion of about live on every hundred, computing on th~e me- dium nurmber of Slaves in the island d~uring th~at period. That in the seven years from i 774 to 1780, both inclulive, the exucefs of deaths was in thze proportion of about one and oine-third on every hundred, on the medium number. That between the year 1780 and I785, there ap- pears to have been a decnreae in the number of Slaves cif about 5>oco. x That That in th~e fix years from r78 z to 17 86, both inc~lrtivet, the excers of deaths was in the propor- tion of rather less; than leven-eigohths in every hun.. dred, on the mredtiumn number. Anld that in the slur- years from r7 83 toz7 86, both inclusive, thle excef's of deaths was in the propor- tion of ral~the lets· than one-th~ird in every hundred, on the mesdiumn number. And that durfngo the whlole per-iod, there is nto doubt that falme were exported from theinand, but confidrrably mor-e in the firf1part of this period than in the Inft. X II. TH-AT che accountrs fiomn the Leeward Jnilads, and from Dominica, Grenada, and Saint Vin- centt's 3 do not tulrnith~ fuit~ic~ient gr~ounds 'for com- paring the flare of population inl de ilaid Illands at different periods, w-ith the number- of Slaves wzhich have been from cime to7 tme imported into the: said lilands, and exporfted therefrom. Bu t dIat, from the evidence wvhich. has been re- ceived respecting the p'rPefet fate of thefe.la~nds, as well as of Jamaica and Barbadoes; and from a consideration of the means obviating the cadies which have hitherro operated to irapede dxe natural mecreafe increase of the Slaves, and of lessening the demandc for inanlual labour, without dirninifhirg the profit of the planter, it appears th~at no considerable or permannen inconvenience would result fromn difcon- tinuing dxle farthecr im~portation of African Slaves. h'. B. It Is the intention lifrer passing there refo- lutio~ns, to move for leaLve to bring in a bill for thle total abolic~ion of the Slave Trade.· L OR D PEr~NR~H YN, After a tribute of approbation to the beauty, force, and. eloquence of wha~t Mr. Wilberforce had juff delivered, said, he thould indeed appear but with an ill grace ;· yet wvas he to firmly fixed in his opinion of the m~ichriefs which an unqualified abolition of the slave trade mult occallon, that he found it his duty to oppole the main point of the H[-onourable Gentleman's argument. He did fTo from a pre-convialon--he did to from the errors--palpable errors to be found in the reports, speeches, and quotations al- luded- ( 65 ) Juded to,· most of which wvere eithier mis- stated or milapplied. A regulation: might· be requisite; but a total abolition was go- ing a fiep beyond the ·bounds of pnrdence onr reatitude. MaR. BAM/BER GASCOYNE, On the fame Exde of the argument, contend- .ed, that a total unqualified abolition would do as minjty to private ~property and to pub2;e intereB. Tihe Honourable Gentle- maln, who had his plan so near at heart, gave the Committee a very fine ijyfiem of ;agriculture, which country gentlemen, wtho underflood the plough, might conceive wyell -adapted to this country: but how it applied to the burning regions of the weft, was yret to be proved. He then entered into a de- fence of wthat he said lait year on the iub. je"t of tonnage, wvhich he contended was now mis-fated by the H-onourable Gentle- mia4;. and, as to the loss of seamen, he would takre. upon hlim to aver, that, infleRad of a checkt to the A~frican· save tradelervingg our marine, it did them the molt effentia, E injury ( 66 ) injury, numnbers being at this moment -in want of bread, on account of the bill passed in the last Seiiion of Parliaarent, for the re- gulation of tonnage. He did not with to g~ive a hasty opinionz on the business, and, therefore requefked, that time might be al- low~ed for consideration of the fabjea3, onl the calculatons made in the Horiourable Gentleman's Ipeech ; and he truffed, when this fairners was adopted, 'andi the warnith of prejudice removed, that the African slave trade would be found produaive of a conside=rable revenue to this country. Mn.R WILBERFORCE' Assured the H-ouse, that he had not wrl- fully mis-f'tated the matter. He might err., bult it was not with the confeat of his mind j for he really believed every lyllable he had uttered to be £1cialy founded on truth. He begged it might be so under- flood, that he did not mean to bring the fubjea ~into debate on its broad basis at pre- feat.-He wished togive time for a due con- fideration of the' iubjelE ;. and therefore, if ( 6~7 ) it was agreeable ·to ~the Committee, thiould mention Monday as a proper day to go into the discussion of thd fejveral motions wpich were offered to the Committee. 'M n.' B URKK E - Gave h~is opinion on the fabj eA6-I't was, that the slave trade thnould be totally abol~ih- ed.-It. was a disgrace to human nlature-it began in murderous war--it ended Exi perpe- tual exile ; and what ag~gravated the feene of horror was, that the u~nhappy fufferers were not krnown to be guilty of any crime what- soever. He was againIt going at all into those merits contained in the papers which the H~onourable ~entlemnan had laid upon the table. His idea was, that the motion thould. nowi be made for a total abolitiont of this inhuman~ traffic ; so that, in process of time, commerce might extend itself over the raft ·continent 'of Africa, as well as in the more' narrowed and ~civilized parts of Europ~e. But however he coincided in the general idenl with the Honourable Gentleman, yet he could not heartily Ez aPgree ( 68S ) agree in th~e mode by ~which the purport of that idea wpas to be -fufilled. He wvithedl for no abitraded queffions, but to come at; once to the point; for each motion, as now read to th~cE~oufe, might occaffon debate, and that debate produce, pojiblyr, he would nodfay probably, a cause to fight a word out; and if it thould, by any misfortune, be the means of putting· a negative upon the whbole, the matter would appear as a disg~race upon the journals of Parliament. HXence he recom- mended. brevityj,:and -advrifed that the motion thould contain no more than a resolution of the Committee, thatt the slave trade thould be totally abolished; to which motion he thould give his molk hearty affirmative, on account of the purity of its principles ; for, if the bill was thrown out: in the Lords, the resolutions, flanding on the Journals, wvould become a r~ecrded cediure on the Cormmons. Instead of f~eeing the unhappy~ Africans thus treated by the Sons of Freedom, he trufked, we thlorild instantly put ·a flop to this evil, and, - initead of colunte- nancing the fiae :of our fellow creatures, begin ( 69 ) beg~in- a new kind of traffi z, and barter 1111. cit: profit for gnloriouls humanity. . His ma~- fonr for troubling thle H~oule at present, wvas, that his duty inl another place, might, in all probarbility, make it impoi~ble for hira to attend on Mlonday next, and, t~herefor~e, wrhat festziments he had to of~fer, he thenz wit~hed to deliver. .He paid many coampli- mens t~so M/r. Wlberfforce for wh~at h~e laid, and . docla~red, that it might be truly calk~d one of thec best speeches ever delivered in Parliament, in favrour of a race of b~eings w\tho hlad this sole comfort, that the Sh'ILe w~as only com~-pensated b~y not being a Manrt. Mr.i PITT Could not: permnit Po important a matter to pas~s writhout sa~ying a few words. H gave h~is moss hearty concurrence to all that~ h~ad beeni so cloq~uently spoken byv his Ho- nourable FEriend, anld was fully convinced in his own m~ind, thiat there thould be a toa~lt and~ unllalgdc r-epea of the Slavet'rad-~e L~aw. He differed with Mr~l. Burke as to his idlea refpedling the motishl; because he !houghbt t'hat nothing thort of unconditioln- ally ally abol1(hing thle whoile of this traffic, couhrl be o~f fecrvice to thle cadec of humniai- ty. Thec Houle·, he therefore trufled, wiould cordially con~cur inl one· opinion~, anl h~e wtithed, fo~r thle hlonour of B3ritain,; i lt miht be an1 Unanmlous vo~te on theC occasion. As3 tol Franlce, he1- truited, from every matteJr hec could learn;, thiat the wIrould be conitenlt to followv our planl of emancipationi, when the found theL couldI not takie thec lead in so glo- rious a buf~ind~s. H-e laid it: was, indeed~C, a mlomen~tous ludltion, andt thiat nior!hing but ~it noct be- inghr truly~ underitood, could ever hiave p~re- vented its being hiitherto adopte~d. Hlow.- ever, hie hand no doubt of thiis great qjuet- tion being at lafr decided b~y th~e imnmutabkt 3·aw~r olf juffice,, for it was a\ thbjecA on whu~ich~ truthi muut anid would be inrincible. Some- thiing hadl been th~rowni oult respecting thie a~dvnitage~ foreign countries migSht take of our giving6 up this t-affc--but thant was idle [pc~ulationl. G;ret Britain was~ always able to prevent an ;Ilicit tradec of negroes byv anly othecr power.I to the Weflt Indlies; but of that 2 theret there was no great apprehension ; the French were probably following up our idea, and, perhaps, meaning tos enter uxto a negGC12- tion wixith uIs on the f~ubje~t. MR\. FOX Said, he n~ever had heard a debate wvith more fati;sfta £ton than the present. With regard to the plan of laying the pr-opolitions brefore the House, where he was agreed as to the f~ubitance of a measure, he did nlot like to differ as.to the form of it. If, how- ever, he diff~ered in any thing, it was rather wi~th a view to forward the busines~s than to injure it, or to throw any thing like an- ob- itacle or impediment in its w~ay. Nothifrg like either thould comeo from him. Wfhat he thought was, that all the propositions wvere not necessary to be voted, previous to the ultimate vote, though some of them un- doubtedly were. lIn or~der to explain this, he reminded the Honlourable G~entleman, that the propoition~s were of two forts·; one fort forrt aleged th~e fit grounds onl wh'Zich the Hode~ ought to proceed to abolilh the Slave T'rade, viz. that it was a disgrace to humat- ni;ty, that it was attended wcith the loss of ~livs to our seamen, as wvell as the Afr;- can~, &~c. &Lc. An~other fort contained as-- 11:rt-ions inl antisver, as it wrere, to thle ob~jec- tions thatr had! been slated, or were supposed likely to be slated. Thle putting folch refo- Jutions on their Jour~nals might create a dif- ficulty to foreign pow-ers; becausE what migh't be a mnatte~r of obsjea~ion to Grett- Bri- tain, might not be so to anly othrer country. Mi·r. Fox ap~lau~dced M~r. Wilberforce, and gave him his thanks for profeffing to do w8hat he thought it: their duty to do, 9viz. to completely abol~ih the traffic in Slaves; a traffic, for continuing which, on lo ground, either a plea of policy or necessity could be: urged. Wherever an effectual remedy could not be had, M~r. Fox said, hie approved a palliative, because fortieth~ing like :a remc- dv wtas better than no rer~nedy at all; in yhe present cafe, an eff8eas~al renemed was not · onlyl more desirable,: bu: -it ·was:mig~h less difficult to be obtained that a pan~iative. H~e He was glad that the Propolitions were to be put upon thle Journals , because if from anly misfortune, the bulinef~s thould fail, while it flood upon the7 Journals, it might fiucceed another year; certain it was, it could not fail to succeed sooner or later. Foreign countries, when they heard that the matter had been dilcuffed in that House, might followr the example, or they might go before us, and set one themselves. If this were to happen, though we mighte be the losers, humanity would be the gainer. Mfr. Fox reminded the Houle that he had always been particularly s~anguine that whenever they examined the Slave Trade thoroughly, they woul;d find it not only inhuman but impolitic; from wh'at the Honourable Gentleman, wvho had submit- ted t-he Propositions to their confllderationI, had said, it was clear there was as; little po- licy as h~umanlity inl the Trade. But whfat. he role chiefly for, Mr. Fox said, was to notice wvhat hlad fallen from the R~ight· Honourable Gentleman refpefting the pro- bability of foreign nations assuming· the Slave Trade on our abandoning it, and, F in ( 74 ) in an illicit manner, supplying our Weft- India Islands with Slaves. He had intended to have risen to hlave said the very famle thing, because he was conv;inced that it was the fit tone to be hetld on such a fubjeat, and that foreign nations might be given to unlderfland, that when this country thoughit proper to abolish the Slave trade, we had resources among us to prevent that Trade~ being carried on in any manner with our Colonies.-WVrithi regard ,to what the Honourable Geintleman who spoke last had said, in declaring that a c~landeffine trade in Slaves was worse thlan a legal one, he differed entirely. H-e thought such a trade, ifit eiifted at all, thould be only clandeir- tine. A rtade inl humran flethn was so fecan- Sdalous, that it was to the Jaft degree infa- mous to kLt it be openlIy carried on by thle authority of the Goernmment of any country. MIIr. FoR fIhd, h~e had sometimes been thought to use too harthz expressions of France, in treating hier as the rival of this country.-P'oliticallyv speaking, 'France cer- tainlyi was our rival; but he well knrew the diftina~ion between political enmity and ;Illiberal prejudice.-Ilf th~ere was anly great z and (; 7s· ) and enlightened nation now existing in Eu-. rope, it was ·France, which· was .as likely as any nation on the face of ~the globe, to ass~, on the present ithbjea, with warmth and with enthufiafin; to citch a spark from the light: of our fire, and to run a race witly us in promot~ing the ends of humanity. if France thoxild decline to~join witk·us, the honour, iidde~ed wotiild then b~e allP our own--but he thought, however, we ought nlot to refuse them a participation of this honour, if we could thereby forward the great ends of humanity, and unite them knmxediateljr in thec fate c~ause. THE SP~EIAKE'R Paid ai highi conriplimnint to Mr.~ Wilber- fore,la~nd warmly approved of the Abslition. ALDSERM~AN NEWMNHAIM Was against anyr Bill of the kind. ( ;r6 ) r.~ap D~EEMPgS TE R Enquired whether there was to be a corn- penfation to mortgagees and. planters. Mr. PITT Said that he did not: with to be under- flood as pledged for any compensation. 3LORD P3ENRHYN'1 Accused Mlr. Wilberforce of mifquoting 1Vlr. ]Long, and sp~oke warmly againit the- Albolition, observing that Seventy ~Millions of property were involved in this quest~ion. Mc. S M ITH., Said 2 fewr words in favour of the A9bo- lition, and the House adjourned. FIN I ~ S.