Sustainable agriculture is the agriculture that case more about human and environment protection and factors such as non-use of Chemical material in soil fertility and destroying pasts are propose of the present study is designing a primitive organization based on sustainable agriculture developing from the stand point of agricultural experts of sampan province. This research is an applied type. the statistical population of this research consist of agricultural experts employed in executive section and agricultural faculty Members of sampan universities the population the population of the respondents is estimated to be 168 by the use of formal Cochran. The sampling method of this research was based on proportional stratified sampling with regard to the research propositions, library and documentary study method as well as field method by the help question air were utilized to collect information the validity of main instruments of collecting information was carried out based on the comments of professors and PhD students of promoting and teaching agriculture major and the reliability was estimate by the preliminary test with the alpha of 89%. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statics by the use of SPSS win 18 statistical software were carried out. For testing hypotheses of this research, correlation coefficient, multiple regression and path analysis were utilized the correlation between the variable of promotion activities planning mode, the types of Primitive Organizations in sustainable development and the rate of expert cooperation in research primitive plans was 95 percent and the varieties of promotion enforcement agent's characteristics, promotion plans audience in sustainable development, the desired goals of promoting sustainable development, the desired content of promotion in sustainable development and expert knowledge in sustainability was 99 percent had significant relationship with this research dependent variables (experts, standpoints about sustainable agriculture development dimensions, availability the path Analysis of independent variable of promotion pillars an sustainable agriculture development showed that enforcement agent properties, the audience of promotion plans in sustainable development, promotion goals in sustainable development, the desired content of promotion in sustainable development, desired educational methods in sustainable development and primitive activities planning mode had the most direct and indirect influence on the dependent variable of sustainable agriculture development.
Key words: sustainable, sustainable development, agriculture experts, semnan province
Agriculture is the most important and essential part of producing human needs. World without agriculture cannot be imagined. While the area of lands for cultivation is limited, the world population is increasing quickly and the food demand is growing this an excessive pressure on environment to obtain food and other human needs.
Agriculture has determent role in social and economical growth of the important factors in keeping independence
Lionel 8 teal, 2005, perceive agriculture development as the first and the most important step in access to economical, social and environmental comprehensive development. Standard development of Agriculture initially cause fast growth of agricultural product and the temporary and of food production and food security concerns, however, consequences of this agriculture were gradually fund. disturbing great area of jungles, the pollution of aquatic environment, the threat of ozone layer by greenhouse gas, soil pollution and server decrease of soil fertility, human health threat, defect in life cycle of many linings and other examples are the results of development such inappropriate changes cause the change of methods in achieving development, however, this was under the attention of scientists such as north barn (Mirdamadi & khademi, 2003).
Moth (2005) and Zamanipour (2001) believe that sustainable agriculture is more than only than only the change of cultivation methods and there is a need to concentrate on increasing the knowledge and encouraging group work and personal and collective thinking that cannot be tone by current on technical and professional counseling. In fact, sustainable agriculture as a management philosopher and a system for providing agriculture needs of today future generations was appeared to respond to the human and natural problems as the main challenge of 21 century and it means that agriculture should be less consumer and more sustainable (leeuwis, 2004).
Sustainable development is a modern paradigm that at end at the end of 2othcentury opens ways toward human. Its attention is centered on human and. Eliminating undeveloping foibles such as destroying environments inattention to women and children, increasing poverty injustice, Therefore, it perceives. Its centrality in human and life collection survival and its continuity in future generations. Sustainable development, generally, means the mutual respect between human and environment and thinks about consuming natural resources in a way that other generations can efficiently utilize resources. Modern agriculture pays attention to solve agricultural problems caused by environmental disturbance in Iran; from the total active rural population 50% of rural people are active in agriculture, 27% in industry, and 23 in services.
Farmers have about 18 million hectares of agricultural lands and 92milion local livestock sand produce 92 percent of consuming food products of the country. (Karbasioun & et al, 2007).
By reviewing the statistical rate of distributing fertilizers and chemical pesticides during the years of 137688, the rising trend of consuming in these two inputs can be seen. Also by looking at the operation statistics in non-chemical fight with pests and diseases during 2002-2003, decreasing acceptance of biologic fight methods can be seen in 88 in comparison with 87 and previous years (Guilanpour, 2006).
Above statistics and figures show unsustainable condition in the organization is important and inattention to it causes alarming results for providing food security of Iranian (Sharghi, 2007).
Many researchers have been done in promotion of sustainable agriculture and some of them are as follows:
Marsh & panel (2001) perceive promotion role in developing human sources to be consisted of communication development, institution building, freedom in leadership development strategies for learning the job, utilizing show approach and results and organization of knowledge. Human resources development emphasizes on local.
Thripati (2003) and fad (2005) also perceive the promotion role as human development that is consisted of developing and important of educational standards and creating competency and efficiency in technical organizational, management, communicative and career skills.
Swanson (2006) perceives the main goal of promotion as providing competition among farmers for production effectiveness, reducing costs, introducing innovation, marketing improvement and optimum use of resources.
This study attempt to design a knowledge transaction primitive model based on sampan province's agricultures, experts 'standpoints.
With regard to the current agricultural primitive organization in Iran that after merging two executive vacuum, there is a need to rethinking in content, components, and primitive organization policy in realization of sustainable agriculture. Therefore, the main questions are that, how experts do analyze agricultural promotion situation for achieving sustainable development in semnan?
Which sustainable development dimensions are the problems and barriers to achieve it?
Material and method
The goal of this research is an applied type of data gathering is descriptive and scientifically, it is a communicative type. the dependent variable is the experts attitude toward sustainable agriculture dimensions (environmental security dimensions, economical security dimensions and social security dimensions). independent variables of this research are promotion organization pillars (planning mode of promotion activities, enforcement agent characteristics, audience of promotion planning in sustainable development, promotion goals in sustainable development educational methods of promotion, the type of primitive organizations in sustainable development and the desired content of promotion in sustainable development, personal characteristics (age, education level, major organizational position, sex, marital status, educational administrative and agricultural experience), social characteristics (group and association membership, primitive research designs).
Experts' knowledge in sustainability and the role of university education in sustainable development, and the characteristics of operation organization utilized by the farmers (property type, land area, production rate)
Statistical population consists of graduate staffs of seaman agriculture organization who studied agriculture and all of active instructors in primitive section as well as agriculture faculty of seaman universities. The total number of this population is 450. for estimating sample size, firstly in the pretest, 30 staff of agriculture organization were chosen to answer the question and finally by the use of cochran, d=0.05, s=0.35, t=1.96), 132 people were assigned that after reviewing of dispersion, type of job, place of work the least number of sample size, this was population were selected from the towns of semnan province and by the method of proportional stratified random sampling for gathering information is questionnaire. For validity measurement the research instrument, after designing the questionnaire based on the research goal and hypotheses, the questionnaire was given to the experts and some of PhD students. The reliability of the research instrument by the obtained alpha coefficient was estimated to be 0.89.
With regard to the table data, the most age regard to the table data, the most age frequency of experts is 3140 and with 62 people, it consists 36.9 percent of the total respondent population the age average of the experts is 43.42 in general the experts are in dynamic age and suitable experience, the majority of the experts are men (150 people and 89.3 parent) and 10.7 percent of the statistics population are woman. Based on the observation, 104 (61.9%) of the population were graduated and 35 (20.8%) ere postgraduated, w21 (12.5%) had associate diploma and 8 (4.8%) were studying PhD. most of the experts had experience in agricultural activities and only 7.7 percent (13 persons) of the total respondents did not have any agricultural activity. Among them, 80 (47.8%)had worked between 11-20 years the least frequency was related to whom had worked under 10 years. The average was 19.8 years of working that showed high experience of experts in practical agricultural activities. The most frequency of working years of agricultural experts in educational, administrative and executive activities by 89 persons (53 percent) is in the range of 11 to 20. therefore 43 persons and 25.6 percent of total respondents, had worked more than 20 years.
The average of working years is 15.8 and shows the experience of respondents. (Administrative table)
Based on the collected information, the results shows that form the exports standpoints, the attention to promotion and instruction of sustainable development dimensions must be firstly for helping user to the equal access to information the second priority is considering all user for instruction and the third priority is helping to improve and empower users it can be concluded that the attention of experts of in this section was mainly on the improvement of social conditions of agricultural users. At the end of this list you can see helping to sustaining production resources (water, soil,....), utilizing fissional strategies and decreasing toxins in controlling and struggling pasts, health and keeping sustainability of the environments that shows less attention to the environmental dimension. However, the high average of the responds shows the importance of all three dimensions.
The following table shows the correlation between independent variables and the first dependent variable, i.e. expert's attitude toward sustainable agriculture development. the result show that there is a significant relationship between the variable of education level, organizational activities, and social associate membership of experts attitude toward sustainable agriculture development at the level of 95 percent. This relationship is significant at the level of 99 percent between the variables of educational, administrative and work experience, membership in research-promotion projects and knowledge level of expert about sustainability and the variable of experts attitude toward sustainable agriculture development. There was no relationship between variables of age, sex, material status, and major and the dependent variable of this research.
According to the table, the entire promotion variable has a significant relationship with the variable of exports attitude toward the access rate to sustainable agriculture development dimension. the variables of promotion activities planning mode, type of promotion organization in sustainable development and the Tate of expert cooperation in promotion research projects at the level of 95% and the variable of promotion enforcement agents characteristics, audience of promotion plans in development, the desired goal of sustainable development promotion, the desired content of promotion in sustainable development and experts knowledge about sustainability at the level of 99 percent have significant relationship with the research development variable (experts attitude toward the access rate to sustainable agriculture development dimension)all of the above variables have significant relationship, therefore, the regression should be analyzed about them.
The above tables show the direct effects of independent variable of the regression equation on the dependent variable of sustainable agriculture development. according to it, the promotion variable of goals of promotion in sustainable development, instruction methods of promotion in sustainable development and promotion activities planning mode, enforcement agents characteristics, the desired content of Promotion program in sustainable development
Have the most significant role primitive variable on sustainable development from the experts standpoint, it should be note that expert believe that the desired goals have play at the most significant role in sustainable development access. it is important to state that primitive activities planning mode is placed at the end of the list and can show lock of coordination among different unit of executive in agriculture organization the following figure show the direct and indirect variables.
The path analysis of the above variables is carried out according to the following:
The above table show direct and indirect effects of independent variables on dependent variable of access rate of sustainable agriculture development social cultural factors, economical factors, legal factors, the desired content of promotion in sustainable development, environment factors, primitive methods in sustainable development, respectively have the most total effects on the dependent variable of access rate to sustainable agriculture development it can be conclude that, these experts perceive cauterizing and social factors as the main factor in achieving sustainable development.
Discussion and conclusion:
Today, sustainable development in different sections and all of life dimensions is not a recommended modern process but a necessary and obligatory action.
The presented statistics in the previous sections show that in the world and our country, developmental process more to unsustainability and destroying the environment.
Consuming toxins and chemical pesticides of our country as more than the global standards and there is no defined way for applying them.
1--The result show that according to experts' beliefs, educating and informing the farmers has a crucial role in agricultural sustainability in general, human development factor and their empowerment is more important that other mentioned factors.
2--Exports believe that the audiences of promotion--instruction programs are mostly farmers and those who receive primitive programs and after them are small agricultural producers and rural youth's the reason for this is the lack of sources in utilizing people for performing developmental projects.
3--Expert's attitude about promotion goals in sustainable agriculture development centered around human resources development and informing the audience and after that on technical and management skills.
4--The result shows that expert believes that the demanded organization management and organizing sustainable agriculture development should be based on systematic management and flexibility holistically.
5--Experts believe that, the most important characteristic of promotion program content should be their adaptation with the where demands, the problem of the cost of those programs and applicability of these programs content. Therefore, exports put emphasis on the attention to the process of performing developmental programs.
6--The results show that all of the desired primitive variable of this section have significant relationship with the variable of experts' attitude toward the access rate to the sustainable agriculture development dimension. the variables of primitive activities planning mode, type of primitive organizations in sustainable development and the rate of experts cooperation in promotion research projects at the level of 95 percent and the variable of primitive enforcement agent characteristics, the audience of primitive programs in sustainable development, the desired goals of promotion in sustainable development, the desired content of promotion in sustainable development and experts knowledge about sustainability at the level of 99 percent have a significant relationship with the dependent variable of this research (experts attitude toward the access rate to sustainable agricultural development dimension) the result of this study are in accordance with the previous dissertation findings of samara (2003) and allahyari (2007).
7--the finding of the present study show that in the role of all of the independent variable on sustainable agricultural development, the variables of the type promotion programs audience in sustainable development, the desired promotion content in sustainable development, instruction methods of promotion in sustainable development, promotion goals in sustainable development and economical factors at the level of 95 percent had a relationship with sustainable agriculture development access. This relationship is at the level of 99 percent for the variable, of legal factors, cultural and social influence and environmental factors. The variable of enforcement agent's characteristics and promotion activities planning mode had no relationship with variable of sustainable agriculture development. The relationship between these variables is in concord with the findings of allahyari (2007).
8--the findings of this research about the role of independent Variables on sustainable agriculture development show those social cultural factors, economical factors, legal factors, the desired promotion content in sustainable development, environmental factors, and primitive methods
In sustainable development, the audience of promotion goals in sustainable development had respectively the most total direct and indirect effect on the dependent variable of access rate to sustainable agriculture development it can be concluded that, these experts conceive culturalization and social factors as the most important factor to achieve sustainable development.
1--the descriptive statistics of experts majors especially in the executive section is hot related specialty and experience are two important factors in development and should be considered in recruiting active people therefore, it is suggested that organizing the existed people or recruiting new once should be based on the future demands.
2--according to the experts beliefs, instruction and informing the farmers has the most important role in sustainable agricultural development, therefore, it suggested to utilize all of the informative tools suitable with the farmers and agricultural users conditions. In to the process of informing, the variety of information and media and the relatedness of the information to the real conditions of the farmers are the crucial factors of communication that should be considered.
3--From three desired dimensions of sustainable development, social factor is considered to be the most important one by the experts. Therefore, it is suggested to consider social dimensions of sustainable development like informing, grouping users in cooperation and work associations.
4--According to the study, experts' information about principles, philosophy and methods of sustainable agriculture development should be more than this to give them a strong belief in performing such developmental programs.
5--As is was mentioned before, experts believe that instruction methods should center in the media especially TV, therefore, it is suggested radio and TV programs of the province by the help of agricultural cooperation and organizations such as nomads (ashier)and fishery administrations provide special programs for informing farmers about destroying factors in agriculture and encouraging them to sustainable agriculture.
6--Modern cooperative method such as fertilizing and quick rural estimating techniques is introduced by the experts as the crucial and should be considered to be as the important promotion methods.
7--Human development is considered to be the under component of goals. therefore, it is suggested that different inverted sections and especially agricultural cooperation improve skills, knowledge and attitude of farmers by detecting and supporting important factors like promotion, counseling organizations, private firms and groups and cooperative classes, visiting related places and discussion meetings can play an important role.
8- Demand finding is one the important activities that should be carried out in all of developmental programs especially those with voluntary and adult centrality. Therefore, it is emphasized to find demands firstly and before any program performance and it should be based on farmer's needs and ideas.
9--About on farmers needs and ideas that enforcement agents characteristics play the most important and development. therefore, it is suggested to educate enforcement agents based on standards and crucial needs
10--Path analysis of promotion variables that are effective on sustainable development gives the most important role to the type of audience. Therefore it is recommended that head-on assigned priori tie; firstly the type of the audience who were the precursor farmers bade on the priorities should be instructed and educated and then other farmers should be considered to avoid washing budget in unnecessary place.
11--Content also has great influence on the success of sustainable developmental programs that should be considered booed on the demote finding s and the related specialties.
12--At the moment; the most important promoting approach of the comfrey despite the years of experience and change; is government and nasal approach that based on the present stonily and path analysis findings; there is anteed to change these approaches to social and cooperative models since the experts themselves believe that in the process of running sustainable agricultural development model; the farmers should participate and this needs essential changes in the current attitude of agriculture ministry.
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(1) Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri, (2) Amir Hosseain Minaei
(1) Young Researchers Club, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran
(2) Faculty member--Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Garmsar, Iran
Corresponding Author: Mohammad sadegh Sabouri, Young Researchers Club, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran
Table 1: Frequency distribute of personal characteristics of the agricultural experts of the country. Cumulative Percent Frequency Stratifies percent 17.3 17.3 29 20-30 54.2 36.9 62 31-40 89.3 35.1 59 41-50 100 10.7 18 50 7.7 7.7 13 No working to 26.1 18.4 31 10 years 73.9 47.8 80 11-20 100 26.1 44 More than 20 12.5 21 Ad 61.9 104 B.s 20.8 35 M.s 4.8 8 PhD 89.3 150 man 10.7 18 woman Cumulative Percent Personal percent characteristics 17.3 17.3 Age: N = 168 54.2 36.9 Maximum = 57 89.3 35.1 Minimum = 23 100 10.7 Average = 43.42 S.d = 15.09 7.7 7.7 Agricultural working 26.1 18.4 N = 168 73.9 47.8 Maximum = 48 100 26.1 Minimum = 1 S.d = 19.8 Mean = 20.1 12.5 Educational level 61.9 N = 168 20.8 Mode = B.s 4.8 89.3 Sex 10.7 N = 168 Table 2: Prioritizing exports standpoint about the role of promotion and instruction on sustainable Development dimensions. Rate of attention of promotion and Average deviation instruction to sustainable Development dimensions helping to equal access to the 4.49 0.69 information Updating information 4.39 0.83 Holding instructional classes related 4.4 0.86 to sustainable development Providing technical advices related to 4.33 0.91 sustainable development Referring problems to the related 4.2 0.91 sections Referring to technologies related to 4.18 1.01 sustainable development Problem detection of production steps 4.09 1 Need estimated of users 4.11 1.09 Utilizing modern information of users 4 1.11 Health helping to the environment 4 1.17 Helping to users empowerment 3.95 1.2 Creating agricultural group and 3.93 1.2 associations Maintenance and stability in producing 3.81 1.21 agricultural goods Optimum use of existed resources and 3.7 1.19 facilities Helping to production resources 3.51 1.19 sustainability (water & soil ...) Utilizing fissional strategies and 3.48 1.22 decreasing toxins in Controlling Rate of attention of promotion and Coefficient priority instruction to sustainable Development Of variation dimensions helping to equal access to the 0.154 1 information Updating information 0.189 2 Holding instructional classes related 0.195 3 to sustainable development Providing technical advices related to 0.210 4 sustainable development Referring problems to the related 0.217 5 sections Referring to technologies related to 0.242 6 sustainable development Problem detection of production steps 0.244 7 Need estimated of users 0.265 8 Utilizing modern information of users 0.278 9 Health helping to the environment 0.293 10 Helping to users empowerment 0.304 11 Creating agricultural group and 0.305 12 associations Maintenance and stability in producing 0.318 13 agricultural goods Optimum use of existed resources and 0.322 14 facilities Helping to production resources 0.339 15 sustainability (water & soil ...) Utilizing fissional strategies and 0.350 16 decreasing toxins in Controlling Table 3: Checking the correlation between the research variable and the variable of expert's attitude toward sustainable agriculture development. First variable p R Age 0/093 0/079 Sex 0/127 0/068 Major 0/114 0/75 Marital status 0/057 0/101 Type of beneficiary organizations 0/275 0/075 Promotion activities planning mode 0/033 0/124 Enforcement agents characteristics 0/002 0/294 Audience of promotion plans in sustainable 0/001 0/361 development Goals Promotion instruction in sustainable 0/001 0/337 development Promotion instruction methods 0/001 0/297 Type of promotion organization in sustainable 0/044 0/119 development The desired content of promotion in sustainable 0/000 0/401 development The rate of experts cooperation in promotion 0/000 0/392 research projects Experts knowledge about sustainability 0/000 0/415 * Significant at 0.05 level ** Significant at 0.01 level Table 4: The role of promotion variables in sustainable agriculture development. model R [R.sup.2] Ad.[R.sup.2] S.E Enter0/547 0/504 0/491 0/7649 According to the above table and the assigned coefficient, the variables that are analyzed in this research have the explain power of 50.4% percent (r = 0.504 to the changes related to sustainable variables of this research. Table 5: The role of independent promotion variable in sustainable agriculture development Variable B S.E BETA T P Latitude of origin 0/592 1/001 -- 10/148 0/000 Goals of sustainable 0/483 0/139 0/412 8/230 0/000 development The desire content of 0/371 0/121 0/356 7/261 0/002 promotion in sustainable development Instruction method in 0/435 0/128 0/399 7/997 0/000 sustainable development Enforcement Extension 0/298 0/122 0/276 5/792 0/001 agent Primitive activities 0/461 0/124 0/402 8/673 0/000 planning mode Expert cooperation in 0/138 0/114 0/133 3/934 0/001 primitive research project Experts knowledge about 0/086 0/081 0/063 1/101 0/075 sustainability Table 6: Direct and indirect effects of independent variables on dependent variable of access rate to sustainable agriculture development. variable Direct Indirect Total effects effects effects Social-cultural factors 0/467 0/163 0/630 Economical factors 0/378 0/114 0/492 Legal factors 0/483 -- 0/483 the desired content of promotion 0/361 0/054 0/415 in sustainable development Environment factors 0/392 0/0087 0/338 Promotion methods in sustainable 0/246 -- 0/246 development Advice of promotion programs 0/229 -- 0/229 Promote goals in sustainable 0/209 -- 0/209 development