Ancient Greece

The term “ancient Greece” is commonly used to refer to what historians have defined as the Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic eras of the region’s long history. Classical Greece emerged around 480 bc, arising from a preceding period of aggressive expansion and cultural development known as Archaic Greece (700–480 bc). During the Classical era, Greece was dominated by two ascendant city-states: Athens and Sparta. During the Classical era, Athens became one of the most important cultural centers of the ancient world. However, the city-state descended into a bitter and destructive rivalry with nearby Sparta, which was uniformly recognized as the region’s preeminent military power. This rivalry culminated in the eventual decline of both city-states, after which Greece transitioned into the Hellenistic...

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