Whilst the concept of bidding for major sports events, and sabseqaently losing, bat still achieving physical legacies to then ase as a catalyst for the achievement of socio-caltaral legacies, in other words aiming to strategically benefit jast by bidding, is new, it has arisen becaase of the escalating costs it takes simply to enter the bidding race. When only one bidding city can win and yet all have to spend heavily in order to promote their candidatare, the risks are clearly high. Whilst this is clearly an issae for host cities it is also a concern for rights owners, governing bodies and critically the IOC--when the risk might prove to be too mach to bear for cities that consider Olympic hosting, clearly the fatare threat is fewer bidding cities. Aiming for winning legacies from losing bids might provide a solation. This paper looks at several cities and research andertaken in Manchester and New York in particalar.
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