Byline: Ainy Hafeez, Syed Mohsin Ali Kazmi, Muhammad Sulaiman, Chaudhry Haider Ali and Nadeem Feroze
Summary: The current study investigates the role of Phoenix Dactylifera L. (date palm) seeds as an effective biosorbent for removing Zn+2, a toxic heavy metal pollutant usually found in the waste streams of industries like fertilizer, mining and galvanizing etc. Date palm seeds were washed, dried, crushed in 170-300 um and modified by acidic treatment (0.1 MHNO3). The effect of most important parameters i.e., pH (3.5-6.1), initial zinc ion concentration (5-100mg/l), biosorbent dosage (0.1-1g) and contact time (0.5-60sec) have been studied via design expert software (version 8.0.6) of response surface methodology. The Box-Bhenken Design (BBD) was used in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for designing the experiments and a number of 29 experiments were run.
The model suggested by the design expert software was quadratic as it had maximum R2-value (0.9235) which indicated that the predicted values of quadratic model were best fitted to the experimental values. The significance of the factors was indicated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the metal uptake increased by increasing initial zinc concentration and decreasing in biosorbent dosage and pH while the contact time had negligible effect on the response surface. The parameters were numerically optimized and the optimum input parameters obtained were pH = 3.52, initial zinc ion concentration = 59.11ppm, biosorbent dosage = 0.1g and contact time = 60min with a metal uptake of 26.84mg/g. Therefore, (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) seeds substantially removed zinc ions under optimum conditions.
Keywords: Biosorbent, Fertilizer, RSM, BBD, Phoenix Dactylifera.
Access to clean water supply is an indispensible necessity for the dignity and health of all people . Earth, which is a water planet, contains about 70% water but out of this only 0.75% is available for all living creatures. The world is facing an acute water scarcity owing to discharge of wastes into world's water by increased human global population [2-4]. According to the latest estimates of Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), Pakistan may run dry with less than 700 m3 per capita water by 2025. This organization has warned the country to carry out research at diverse levels to resolve the crisis .
To overcome the crisis, there is a tremendous pressure in protecting the available water resources from waste water pollution throughout the world .With the rapid evolution of industries, large quantities of hazardous effluents such as toxic chemicals, organic pollutants and heavy metals are generated . Out of these pollutants heavy metal ions contaminants (such as Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb and Zn etc.) have been prioritized as major pollutants due to their toxic effects in the environment [8, 9] Heavy metals are the wastes of many industries e.g., metal processing, paper and pulp, petrochemical, paints, leaded glass, textile and storage batteries industries etc. [10, 11]. Heavy metal ions are toxic because of their non-biodegradable and perseverance nature in the environment [12-14]. They are highly soluble in aqueous phase and can easily assimilate...
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