Byline: Irfan Ullah, Jamshaid Ali Khan, Achyut Adhikari, Peer Abdul Hannan, Faisal Shakeel, Muhammad Kifayatullah, Ajmal Khan and Shafiq Ur Rahman
Summary: The aim of the current study was to evaluate various fractions of Monotheca buxifolia fruit chemically using GC-MS and in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and leishmanicidal potentials in order to provide scientific evidences for its folk uses. A variety of pharmacologically active compounds were identified including hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, vaccinic acid, and pthanlic acid. All the tested samples were found fairly effective in antibacterial assay, P. aeruginosa was found more susceptible to ethyl acetate fraction with inhibition of 69.5 %, while B. subtilis was found completely resistant. Similarly the growth of M. canis and F. solani were moderately inhibited by M. buxifolia. The maximum (50%) antifungal effect was observed in case of ethyl acetate fraction against F. solani, While no leishmanicidal activity was found in the entire tested samples. Yet the use of this plant can be validated in the management of different bacterial and fungal infections.
Key words: Antibacterial; Antifungal; GC-MS; Leishmanicidal; Monotheca buxifolia.
People in under developed countries are suffering more from infectious diseases as compared to developed countries. Many reports suggest that the disease burden is increasing with each passing day . Attempts are made to introduce new drugs that are more potent, having comparatively low adverse effect(s) and economical . In traditional medicine a number of plants have been used for the treatment of various infectious diseases including Berberis lyceum , and Azadirachta indica  etc. Drugs derived from plants are commonly used in developing countries by local practitioners called hakims as they are economical and easily available to maximum population, knowledge about these herbal drugs are transferred from generation to generation verbally without any valid scientific information , therefore, it is now essential to provide scientific rationale to the folk uses of these plants to validate them as best alternative(s) of the currently used drugs [6-7].
Monotheca buxifolia is a wild short tree of family Sapotaceae, which also bears an edible berry like fruit . It is available in many areas of Pakistan (native) Bunair, Swat, Dir and Darra Adam Khail [9-11]. In local language the fruit of this plant is known as Gurgura . In folk medicine, the fruit has been used as purgative, refrigerant, digestive, vermicidal, laxative, hematinic and antioxidant properties. While it has also been recommended to treat a number of infectious diseases including gastro-urinary disorders while antimony made of its gum in eye infections , [13-15]. Previously, the plant has been investigated for the presence of compounds of a number of pharmacologically active chemical classes, hepatoprotective , antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory , cytotoxic  and urease enzyme inhibitory potential(s) .
While considering various folk uses, the present study was intended to investigate M. buxifolia crude hydroethanolic extract (MBHE) and its various solvents soluble fractions for antibacterial, antifungal and leishmanicidal potentials.
Fruits of M. buxifolia were collected from different areas of District Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan) in...
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