The Red Badge of Courage

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Editor: Anne Marie Hacht
Date: 2006
Literary Themes for Students: War and Peace
Publisher: Gale
Series: Literary Themes for Students
Document Type: Plot summary; Work overview
Pages: 12
Content Level: (Level 4)

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The Red Badge of Courage
STEPHEN CRANE
1895

INTRODUCTION

One of the most famous novels about the Civil War ever written, Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage first appeared in print not as a novel but as a newspaper serial. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, newspapers and magazines would often print a small portion of a novel in each issue, with the hope that interested readers would buy subsequent issues to find out what happened next. This tactic was used effectively to boost a periodical's sales. In 1894, a shortened version of Crane's The Red Badge of Courage was serialized in the Philadelphia Press.

The American reading public of the time was hungry for stories about war, particularly the Civil War. The publication of The Red Badge of Courage established Stephen Crane, only twenty-four years old, as one of America's premier war authors. Crane's reputation as a talented war writer is ironic when one realizes that the author was born six years after the Civil War ended and, at the time he wrote the novel, he had never seen a war.

The Red Badge of Courage is the tale of Henry Fleming, a young private in the Union army during the Civil War. Like many of his fellow soldiers, he has volunteered in a temporary fit of patriotic passion; like many soldiers and sailors, his enthusiasm is quickly lost in the mindless routine of army life. Henry is an unremarkable, average boy who grew up on a farm, but he is a bit more thoughtful than many of his Page 440  |  Top of Articlefellow soldiers, and he worries about whether he will run or fight when he faces enemy fire for the first time.

Crane is generally considered to be the foremost English-language writer of the naturalist literary movement. This movement, most notable in French literature, was a reaction to romanticism and symbolism. Among its most famous proponents were Emile Zola and Guy de Maupassant. Crane's first novel, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893), was praised as one of the first English-language attempts at naturalism. The book, gritty and somewhat scandalous for its time, is based on Crane's own observations of poor people in New York City.

Naturalism is an attempt to portray the world in a realistic way. Where romantic literature could be compared to the idealized forms found in a traditional parlor painting, naturalism was like the unglamorous truth of a candid photograph. It is sometimes described as harsh or pessimistic, and often deals with subject matter previously considered unfit or crude. Additionally, naturalistic writing is known for its expression of the tiniest details. The characteristics of naturalism can all be seen in Crane's vivid description of a soldier's corpse in Chapter 7 of The Red Badge of Courage. He spares no gruesome detail, pointing out even a small ant "trundling some sort of a bundle along the upper lip" of the dead man's face.

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BIOGRAPHY
Stephen Crane

The youngest of fourteen children, Stephen Crane was born on November 1, 1871 in Newark, New Jersey. He lost his father when he was only eight, one of his older sisters died when Crane was twelve, and one of his brothers died the following year.

When Crane was a teenager, one of his older brothers helped him start his career as a journalist. Crane briefly attended two colleges, Lafayette College and Syracuse University, but at both he was better known as a baseball player than as an academic. He left school and moved to New York, where he worked part-time as a reporter for the New York Tribune.

In New York, he saw the extreme poverty that inspired his 1893 work Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, which was self-published using inheritance money left to him upon his mother's death. Crane's next book, The Red Badge of Courage, was published in 1895; the success of this book led to his appointment as a traveling newspaper correspondent. His adventures in the West and later as a war correspondent in Puerto Rico and Cuba led to a series of successful short stories, including the classic "The Open Boat."

Crane traveled to Europe with companion Cora Taylor, who is widely recognized as the first female war correspondent. Crane died of tuberculosis in Germany on June 5, 1900 at the age of twenty-eight.

During his short life—he died of tuberculosis at the age of twenty-eight—Crane wrote a dozen books. His work included novels, short stories, and poetry, in addition to many articles and essays written for various newspapers. It is The Red Badge of Courage, however, that secured Crane's place as one of the finest authors in the United States. The book is widely acknowledged as one of the first great modern war novels, and it had a profound effect on all writers who subsequently tried to capture in words the complex and harrowing experience of combat.

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Stephen Crane Stephen Crane The Library of Congress

PLOT SUMMARY

Chapter 1

Much of the action of The Red Badge of Courage occurs within the mind of Henry Fleming, a young private who has enlisted in the Union army during the Civil War. The novel begins with a man called the "tall soldier," whom the reader will later learn is named Jim Conklin, entering camp with the news that the army will be moving the next day. The soldiers react to the news in different ways. Some are glad to finally see action, but most dismiss Conklin's story as nothing more than a rumor. The unit has been told nine times before that it is going to march, but each time the news has turned out to be a false alarm. They have yet to see action. Henry has been secretly worried for some time about his first battle, wondering if he will have the courage to stand and fight when the time comes, or if he will run.

Chapters 2-4

The troops do not move the next day. Conklin is ridiculed. Soon, though, the unit marches, and Henry continues to worry about how he will react in combat. A loud soldier named Wilson expresses confidence about the upcoming battle, further convincing Henry that he is the only one feeling doubts. Wilson tells him, "I didn't say I was the bravest man in the world…. I said I was going to do my share of fighting—that's what I said. And I am, too."

The next day the column encounters a dead man during the march, and the usually confident Wilson makes Henry promise that he will send Wilson's personal effects home to his family in case he is killed. As the men march on, they encounter their fellow troops in full retreat. Henry's unit continues to move forward, and he wonders what caused the other men to retreat.

Chapter 5

Before he has time to think or worry, Henry finds himself in the midst of the battle, and he automatically begins to fight. He finds he is part of something greater than an individual, that he is "welded into a common personality" with the other soldiers. As the battle proceeds, he finds himself overcome with a fury and wants to fight all the enemies by himself. Soon, the enemy troops are on the run, and Henry is stunned to realize that even during the chaotic conflict, nature has remained the same: the sky is still blue and the fields are still green.

Chapter 6

Henry is thrilled with himself as the battle ends. He has fought and passed the test. Then, the enemy charges again, and artillery shells begin to explode all around him. The man next to Henry drops his rifle and runs, and Henry joins him, sure that they are about to be overrun by Confederate soldiers. Eventually he encounters an officer on horseback who is jubilantly shouting, "They've held 'em, by heavens!" The Union line has held, and Henry has shown himself to be the coward he feared he might become.

Chapters 7-11

Henry is stunned, unable to believe that his army was victorious or that he has run from battle. He eventually falls in line with a group of wounded soldiers, and he feels comfortable with them until a tattered man asks Henry where he has been injured. Henry finds himself wishing he had been injured, because his wound would be "a red badge of courage." He encounters Conklin, who has been injured during the battle. Henry and the tattered soldier take Conklin into a field and try to care for him. He tries to stand and manages to Page 442  |  Top of Articlestruggle to his feet, but then suffers violent spasms and dies. After Conklin's death, the tattered soldier asks Henry about his wounds again. Henry flees in shame, wishing he were dead like Conklin. He wanders alone, wondering how he will face the men from his unit, fantasizing about ways he might redeem himself with some heroic action.

Chapter 12

Henry soon realizes that the Union army is in retreat, and he tries to stop several soldiers and ask for news. No one answers him. Finally, he grabs a man by the arm to ask what is happening, and the frightened man swings his rifle at Henry's head, hitting him. Unable to move for a while, Henry eventually struggles to his feet. He wanders around in a daze until a man with a cheerful voice helps him find his unit, the 304th New York.

Chapters 13-15

Expecting to be accused of deserting when he stumbles back into camp, Henry realizes his fellow soldiers are overjoyed at seeing him because they thought he had been killed. Remembering the head injury he had received from the retreating soldier's rifle, Henry tells Wilson that he had been shot in the head and had been separated from the unit. Wilson gets Henry settled by the fire and even admires the way he bears the pain of his wound without complaining.

The next morning, Henry learns that over half of the unit was lost on the previous day. Some men were killed, while some had been separated from the 304th and now fought on with other units. Henry also notices that Wilson has lost his bragging, swaggering tone. At first, Henry plans to tease Wilson for entrusting him with a letter to be sent to Wilson's parents if he died, but he decides not to. Since they think he has been wounded in battle and has chosen to fight on, Henry's fellow soldiers treat him with great respect. He begins to feel very confident about himself. Henry wonders how his mother and a girl he likes back home would view his heroic battlefield deeds.

Chapters 16-17

The men begin to question the wisdom of their generals. Henry himself wonders, if the men fight so well, how they could have been beaten so badly the previous day. He has begun acting the way Wilson did before the battle. The Confederates march again on the Union army, and the 304th tries to halt the enemy's advance. Henry fights like a man possessed, continuing his assault long after the enemy has stopped coming. The lieutenant tells Henry, "By heavens, if I had ten thousand wild cats like you I could tear th' stomach outa this war in less'n a week!" The officer tells the men that their unit is a fine one.

Chapter 18

Henry and Wilson go into the woods to find water to fill the unit's canteens. There, they overhear a conversation between an officer and a general. The Confederate troops are about to charge again, and a unit must be assigned the very dangerous duty of stopping the charge. The officer suggests the 304th, which can be used to hold off the enemy. They are expendable, he says, because they "fight like a lot 'a mule drivers"—a clear insult that stuns Henry. The general says he expects very few men of the 304th to survive. Henry realizes that neither his unit nor himself as an individual is important to the army.

Chapters 19-20

The 304th faces the Confederate charge, taking heavy fire. Henry and Wilson recover the regimental flag after the man who carries it, called the color sergeant, is killed. During the nineteenth century, flags were used to direct troops, and soldiers were trained to follow the flag of their unit into battle. To bear the flag was an important and dangerous job, because the person who carried the flag could not properly wield his weapon. Henry assumes the job of color bearer for his unit, which has lost a huge number of men while trying to repel the Confederate charge. The lieutenant of Henry's unit sees the Confederate troops trying to sneak up on the 304th. Convinced they are about to die, the soldiers in Henry's unit put up a furious fight. Much to their surprise, they win the battle.

Chapters 21-24

As the 304th limps back to join its army, it is greeted by sarcasm from veteran troops. The general is angry; if the troops had advanced a hundred more feet, they would have fulfilled their objective, which was to serve as a diversion. The lieutenant in command defends his men, saying that they fought well. The unit continues to fight, taking heavy losses. A colonel orders the troops to charge forward into a furious battle, and Henry, carrying the colors, leads the charge. Page 443  |  Top of ArticleHe and Wilson both survive. As the novel ends, Henry sits in the rain thinking about what he has learned from the war, about his desertion of his unit, and about his new, more mature vision of war and of life. As he does, a ray of sun peeks through the clouds.

THEMES

Romantic Notion of War

Like many young men, Henry Fleming had been raised on the romantic idea that war somehow transforms a boy into a man. He had "long dreamed of vague and bloody conflicts that had thrilled him with their sweep and fire." Caught up in the patriotic rhetoric surrounding the war (and aware of the admiring glances some young women give to men in uniform), Henry joins the army in a great fit of patriotism. His mother does not approve, and the only advice she gives him is to keep his head low and to come home alive. Before battle, Henry persists in thinking that war is something noble and picturesque, like what one might find in a novel or in a painting.

The reality of war is much different, as Henry discovers. Soldiers spend most of their time drilling, marching, and waiting for action that rarely comes. The prime emotion he feels much of the time before the battle is boredom.

Henry also discovers there is nothing noble about actual combat. The Civil War was a turning point in American military history—the first conflict in which soldiers used modern weapons. The results were bloody. Rather than the noble man-to-man struggle he believed war to be, Henry finds that soldiers are killed very efficiently by hails of bullets from unseen attackers and by heavy artillery. The battlefield is more like a slaughterhouse than a field of glory, and opportunities for personal valor are few in the massive chaos of battle. Military historians say the Civil War was the first war in which the majority of those killed never saw their attackers; the massive destruction witnessed by Henry illustrates this point.

The Faceless Enemy

Throughout the book, Henry has numerous vivid encounters with Union soldiers—most notably with a corpse still wearing a faded Union uniform. However, Henry has no such vivid encounters with his enemy. The bullets that fell his compatriots seem to arise from a foe defined only by "gray walls and fringes of smoke." He does not see the faces of Confederate soldiers; he can only see the effects of their rifle fire, described as "level belchings of yellow flame that caused an inhuman whistling in the air." Even when Henry sees actual soldiers approaching from a distance, his fear builds them into "an onslaught of redoubtable dragons." Throughout the book, the enemy is described in terms far grander or more mysterious than simply a collection of men, many of whom are likely to be just as terrified as Henry.

Perhaps because of this lack of direct contact, Henry's hatred for his enemy is vague at best. In fact, he feels more resentment toward the Union officer who had disparaged his regiment before the battle: "A dagger-pointed gaze from without his blackened face was held toward the enemy, but [Henry's] greater hatred was riveted upon the man, who, not knowing him, had called him a mule driver."

Fear and Cowardice

Before going into battle, Henry tries to convince himself that he will not run away from the fighting. Still, he is not sure he will be able to overcome his fear once the fighting begins. He is comforted when Jim tells him that "if a whole lot of boys started and run, why, I 'spose I'd start and run."

This, it turns out, is exactly what happens to Henry when he enters battle. Like several soldiers around him, he is overcome by fear and flees the battlefield. He is later ashamed of this cowardly act and dreads returning to the regiment he abandoned. To his surprise, no one knows he has fled; they are just happy to see that he is alive. Although Henry conceals his cowardice from his fellow soldiers, Crane seems to suggest that such emotions are not only common in war but completely understandable in life-threatening situations. Still, fear is an emotion that must be overcome to secure honor in Henry's own mind. He is determined to redeem himself by acting bravely, which he later does, taking up the dangerous position of color guard to lead the troops against the Confederates.

Brotherhood of Soldiers

In Crane's work, people who are exposed to intense, life-threatening conditions often bond Page 444  |  Top of Article
Opening page of the final manuscript of The Red Badge of Courage Opening page of the final manuscript of The Red Badge of Courage together in highly meaningful ways. In the midst of his first battle, Henry "felt the subtle battle brotherhood more potent even than the cause for which they were fighting. It was a mysterious fraternity born of the smoke and the danger of death."

To the author, dangerous conditions make one feel more intensely alive. In many cases, exposure to danger makes men act their best and causes them to work together. On the other side of the danger, the soldiers who have lived through it form a bond through their shared experience. Henry, who has been selfish and thoughtless, "suddenly lost concern for himself" and became "welded into a common personality."

Crane's clearest statement of this theme appears in the short story "The Open Boat," when he notes that four men trapped in a boat at sea had become "friends in a more curiously iron-bound degree than may be common." The story's main character, who "had been taught to be cynical of men, knew even at the time [that it] was the best experience of his life." It is only by facing one's fear that one may be accepted into the brotherhood of soldiers that often becomes a lifeline in the midst of war's destruction.

Henry clearly feels this camaraderie, first within his own unit and later with the army as a whole when he takes on the important and dangerous role of the flag bearer. He leads the army into action, recognizing the danger to himself. He first goes to war hoping for glory for himself. By forgetting himself and acting to benefit his fellow soldiers, he acts in a manner that is worthy of glory.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

The Civil War

During the Civil War, the United States split into two parts and fought itself. The Union, which was the traditional government of the United States established by the Constitution in 1789, consisted mainly of states in the North. The Confederacy consisted of southern states that had seceded, or withdrawn, from the United States to form a separate country.

Many reasons have been given for the split. The most commonly cited cause for the war was slavery. The economy of the South depended upon the production of agriculture that required cheap labor in order to maintain profits. In other words, the economy of the South depended on slavery. The North, which had smaller farms and larger portion of the population living in cities, did not depend as heavily on slavery. Beginning in the 1820s, a political movement known as abolition arose in the northern states. Many Northerners felt slavery was morally wrong, while many Southerners felt slavery was an economic right.

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Shortly after the war began in 1861, it looked as if the South would win. The Confederate Army, led by the brilliant General Robert E. Lee, won a series of decisive victories. The South's main strategy was defensive, repelling Union army attacks by placing soldiers in dug-in trenches, similar to a technique later used in World War I. Rifle technology had advanced considerably over the previous decade: Civil War soldiers could accurately shoot four times farther than troops during the Mexican War just fifteen years earlier. Yet both sides suffered heavy casualties because military commanders continued to order old-fashioned charges into the enemy's lines.

Despite its many initial successes, the Confederacy was ill equipped for a long, drawn-out war. The Union army was considerably bigger, and the North, with its large cities and industrial base, was better equipped to mass-produce supplies for a longer period of time.

Historians generally agree that the turning point of the war was the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. It was the bloodiest battle of the war up to that point. Union troops drove the Confederate army out of the North, never to return, and after Gettysburg, the Confederacy won few battles. General Lee finally surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in a courthouse in Appomattox, Virginia, in 1865. By the time the war ended, there were more than six hundred thousand dead—more Americans than have died in any other war, before or since. One-quarter of the South's men of military age were dead, and the economy was devastated. However, the nation was once again united, and millions of slaves earned their freedom.

The 1890s

As the United States became more industrialized and less dependent on agriculture, its citizens moved to cities in ever-increasing numbers. Most hoped to find work, and those who did faced terrible working conditions: workdays of twelve hours or more, sometimes for six or seven days a week, with very low pay. If a worker became ill, there were plenty of others willing to take his or her job. As a result, cities became wells of deep poverty and hopelessness. Many people, often children, starved to death. While living in New York City, Stephen Crane viewed this kind of poverty firsthand.

On the other hand, the decade also saw great technological advances. The first American patent for an automobile was issued to George Selden. Electricity emerged as a practical energy source for household use. America was becoming a military and industrial superpower, and those who were able to benefit from technology and business had great faith in the idea of progress.

The contrast between the promise of progress and the reality of poverty was fertile ground for naturalist writers like Crane. In war, Henry Fleming has little control over his destiny, and he faces the prospect of sudden, pointless death at any moment. According to the ideas of naturalism, the same can be said of anyone at any time. In this way, the scope of the novel extends far beyond its subject matter of the Civil War and highlights an important school of thought gaining popularity during the era in which it was written.

CRITICAL OVERVIEW

When The Red Badge of Courage was published in book form in October 1895, it received generally favorable reviews from American critics. An unsigned review in the New York Times refers to Crane as "certainly a young man of remarkable promise," though it also notes that the book contains "some unpleasant affectations of style which the author would do well to correct." William Dean Howells, in a review for Harper's Weekly, called the book "worth while as an earnest of the greater things that we may hope" from author Crane.

The dazzling reception the novel received in Europe cemented its reputation. Esteemed British critic George Wyndham, in "George Wyndham on Crane's Remarkable New Book," calls Crane "a great artist, with something new to say, and consequently, with a new way of saying it." Wyndham argues that Crane's treatment of war surpasses that of other great European war novelists such as Tolstoy and even Zola. Crane, he states, has come upon a new and effective literary technique: "He stages the drama of war, so to speak, within the mind of one man, and then admits you as to a theatre."

Ironically, the news of the book's overwhelmingly positive European reception helped it Page 446  |  Top of Article
Bill Mauldin as Tom Wilson and Audie Murphy as Henry Fleming in the 1951 film version of The Red Badge of Courage Bill Mauldin as Tom Wilson and Audie Murphy as Henry Fleming in the 1951 film version of The Red Badge of Courage Getty Images become a bestseller in Crane's home country. The New York Times eventually ran a glowing review by Harold Frederic, a London correspondent for the newspaper. Frederic contends that the greatest European examples of war literature are "[p]ositively … cold and ineffectual beside [Crane's work]." Frederic's praise was of the highest order: "If there were in existence any books of a similar character, one could start confidently by saying that it was the best of its kind. But it has no fellows." Finally, American readers took notice. The novel went through thirteen editions in 1896—a huge success.

One notable controversy arose in the wake of the book's popularity. General Alexander C. McClurg, who ran an American magazine called the Dial, was outspoken in his criticism of Crane's novel. McClurg, who had led Union troops during the Civil War, considered the book's main character a disgraceful coward. His "Letter to the Dial" suggests he believed, perhaps because of the book's success abroad, that the author was part of a British attempt to denigrate American soldiers. Many notable writers defended Crane's work against McClurg's attacks, and the general's criticisms ultimately did nothing to dampen the success of the book.

Popular success does not, however, mean that a book will obtain a position in the canon of serious literature. In the case of The Red Badge of Courage, though, more than a century of scholarly and critical assessment has regarded the book as a classic. Joseph Conrad, a much respected novelist in his own right, wrote in "His War Book" that Crane was "an artist, a man not of experience but a man inspired," and that "there is no doubt that The Red Badge of Courage is [a masterpiece]."

Some modern critics view the book as what Edwin Cady, in Stephen Crane, calls "a work of Page 447  |  Top of Articlepsychological realism." Crane is able to capture what a person actually would think and feel in a given situation, in much the same way the highly regarded novelist Henry James did. Critics subscribing to this theory often point to the interior monologues Henry has with himself—about war, about fear, about courage, and even about sandwiches—to show how Crane realistically shows the interior landscape of the human mind.

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MEDIA ADAPTATIONS

Director John Huston created a motion picture adaptation of The Red Badge of Courage in 1951. It was released by MGM and stars World War II hero-turned-actor Audie Murphy. It is available on DVD from Warner Home Entertainment.

Anunabridged audio version of The Red Badge of Courage was released by CD Unabridged in 2001. It is narrated by Roger Dressler.

Audible.com has an audio download of the book available as well. Originally created by Dove Audio in 1994, it is read by Richard Thomas, who played Henry Fleming in a television version of the story in 1974.

Director Lee Philips brought The Red Badge of Courage to television as a ninety-minute movie in 1974 starring Richard Thomas as Henry Fleming and Wendell Burton as Wilson. It is currently unavailable.

Random House has published an e-book version of The Red Badge of Courage available for download in both Adobe Reader and Microsoft Reader format from Amazon.com.

CRITICISM

Donald Pizer

In the following excerpt, Pizer examines how the reality of war shatters Henry Flemings's illusions of the glory of war.

[This text has been suppressed due to author restrictions]

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[This text has been suppressed due to author restrictions]

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[This text has been suppressed due to author restrictions]

Source: Donald Pizer, in Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. Revised Edition, Southern Illinois University Press, 1984, pp. 22-28.

Peter G. Jones

In the following excerpt, Jones shows how The Red Badge of Courage fits into the long tradition of war and peace in literature.

The Red Badge of Courage is a novel of initiation and a synthesis of divergent motifs. Henry Fleming's rage in battle suggests Homeric wrath atrophied. He had envisioned war as a Greek epic, and his continual rationalizing is similar to Achilles', except that Henry remains deceived about the nature of war, expecting to survive it. Crane begins his story in medias res; uses animal imagery that evokes but contrasts sharply with Homer's beast similes (in battle Henry snarls like a "cur"); he inserts a Page 450  |  Top of Articledeus ex machina in the form of the mysterious stranger who guides Henry back to the regiment; and he ends his story at a null point, between battle—structurally, all in the Homeric vein.

But the most significant aspect of the novel is its compound nature. Crane blends epic devices and a romantic protagonist with naturalistic action that reverberates with the advent of technology in warfare. Henry is amazed to find the "golden process" of nature undisturbed by human battle, and, seduced by the beauty of the natural setting, he is at the end still ignorant of nature's indifference. Once he begins firing, Henry works his weapon like "an automatic affair," functioning like a tradesman at work. Contemplating return to the fighting, he thinks of the armies as great machines, and decides to return to the "blue machine," though not without romantic visions of a gloriously heroic death "on a high place before the eyes of all." When the regiment falters in a later attack, it is a "machine run down." Machines as symbolic elements of war, their cataclysmic effect on the nature of warfare and on the attitudes of men who fight, are prominent themes in many contemporary war novels.

Crane combined several motifs in The Red Badge of Courage, creating the first modern war novel. The ironic clash of narrative voice with the thoughts and acts of the youthfully naive protagonist parallels the contrast between Henry's ideas of epic war and the modern battlefield on which he fights. His experiences are clearly in the pattern of initiation or education, the most consistent theme of the modern war novel. Dos Passos's Three Soldiers shows the direct influence of Crane's book, as do Richard Matheson's The Beardless Warriors, Irwin Shaw's The Young Lions, Anton Myrer's The Big War, Harry Brown's A Walk in the Sun, and numerous lesser novels. Crane's novel about the first modern war also reflects accurately the impact of technology and machine-age firepower. It is doubtful that any American who sets out to write of a young man going to war in the twentieth century does so without conscious reference to The Red Badge of Courage.

Source: Peter G. Jones, in War and the Novelist: Appraising the American War Novel, University of Missouri Press, 1976, pp. 5-6.

SOURCES

Cady, Edwin H., Stephen Crane, Twayne Publishers, 1962, p. 131.

Conrad, Joseph, "His War Book," in Stephen Crane: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Maurice Bassan, Prentice-Hall, 1967, p. 123.

Crane, Stephen, The Red Badge of Courage and Other Stories, Penguin Books, 1991.

Frederic, Harold, Review of The Red Badge of Courage, in the New York Times, January 26, 1896, p. 22.

Howells, William Dean, Review of The Red Badge of Courage, in Harper's Weekly, No. 39, October 26, 1895, p. 1013.

McClurg, Alexander C., "Letter to the Dial," in Dial, Vol. 20, April 16, 1896, pp. 227-28.

Spiller, Robert E,. et. al., eds., Literary History of the United States, 3d Edition, McMillan, 1963, p. 1022.

Unsigned, Review of The Red Badge of Courage, in the New York Times, October 19, 1895, p. 3.

Wyndham, George, "George Wyndham on Crane's Remarkable New Book," in New Review, Vol. 14, January 1896, pp. 30-40.

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|CX3451000048