Native American Prose and Poetry

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Date: 1991
Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
Document Type: Article
Length: 4,375 words

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This nation's first literature originated in the verbal arts of the native peoples who migrated to this continent over 28,000 years ago. When Western Europeans arrived, 18 million people inhabited native North America and 5 million lived in what is now the United States. At the time of contact, the native peoples were divided into more than 300 cultural groups and spoke 200 different languages, plus many dialects, derived from seven basic language families. By 1940, one hundred forty-nine of these languages were still in use.

Native Americans continue to create and perform their oral literatures, which strongly influence their written works. The power of oral tradition is expressed in this song by Big Tree (Kiowa):

They carried dreams in their voices;
They were the elders, the old ones.
They told us the old stories,
And they sang the spirit songs.

Oral literatures reflect the diversity of Native American religious beliefs, social structures, customs, languages, and manners of living. Themes commonly expressed in these literatures include the importance of living in harmony with the physical and spiritual universe, respect for the power of thought and word, reverence for the land, and the need for communality and cooperativeness within the tribe.

Although most Native American literatures were transmitted orally, some tribes in North America, such as the Ojibwas and tribes on the Plains and Northwest Coast, made pictographic records. Although traditional ceremonies, myths, and songs follow general patterns established within the group over time, ceremonialists, storytellers, and singers create their own performances within these patterns. The personal style of the performer is important, and significant aspects of style and performance include choice of ritual or ordinary language, use of repetition, structure of the work, revisions of the text to incorporate relevant allusions to the present, appeals to the audience, and use of the performer's voice and body to dramatize content. Audience response is another important dimension.

Oral literatures include such genres as ritual drama--chants, ceremonies, and rituals--as well as narrative, song, and oration. Ritual drama is a sacred form of oral literature that contains both narrative and song and sometimes includes oratory as well. Religious ceremonies express a tribe's attempts to communicate with and to control its spiritual and physical world through the power of the word, whether chanted, sung, or spoken. Ceremonies--and the songs, narratives, and orations included in them--may be expressed in special forms of language. While some are performed seasonally as parts of rituals intended to ensure renewal of the earth or fertile crops, others mark communal events, such as entrance into a tribal society. Many pertain to special occasions in people's life--receiving a name, puberty, marriage, death, and honoring the dead. Ritual dramas are performed by priests or singers, shamans, and social organizations.

Songs constitute the largest part of American Indian oral literatures. Although the performance of songs is generally accompanied by some form of percussion, usually the drum or rattle, musical bows and wind instruments are also used. Some tribes ascribe the origin of songs to such sources as visions of the supernatural, individual creation, or borrowing from other tribes. Composed both communally and individually, songs may sometimes be the possessions of individuals or families. Sacred songs express the religious rites and supplication of the group. Like other genres of oral literature, they utilize repetition, enumeration, and incremental development, as illustrated in this excerpt from the "Flower Wilderness Song" in Yaqui Deer Songs, by Larry Evers and Felipe Molina:

Over there, in the center
of the flower-covered wilderness,
in the enchanted wilderness world,
beautiful with the dawn wind,
beautifully you lie with see-through freshness,
wilderness world

Songs also express the personal experiences of the individual, such as vision or dream, love, personal sorrow or loss, and the singer's own death. Among the special occasions celebrated in song are victory and defeat of individual warriors. Other personal songs include lullabies, women's work songs, hunting songs, and elegies. Others are social songs that are performed for pleasure and have no connection with personal power.

Storytelling has been a major way of entertaining and educating Native Americans in tribal culture. Stories are sometimes divided into those that are true and those that are fictional, the sacred and nonsacred, or some combination of these. Further, stories originally categorized as sacred may sometimes be reclassified as nonsacred. Myths generally describe a world peopled by animals in human form and monstrosities of nature. During the succeeding transformation age, a culture hero or transformer orders the world, turning animal people into animals, and other beings into natural landmarks. This period is followed by the historical age of human memory.

Plots of stories generally are episodic and include considerable humor. Stories often have one-dimensional characters who rarely express thought or emotion and emphasize only the external aspects of behavior necessary to advance the action. Tribes sometimes use archaic language for myths. These narratives usually include stories about the creation of the world, origins and migrations of the tribe, culture heroes, and trickster-transformers. Emergence myths, common in the Southwest, describe the ascent of beings from under the earth to its surface and their subsequent settlement or migration. Movement from an earlier sky world to a water world, accomplished by means of a fall, characterizes the origin stories of the Iroquoian tribes of the Northeastern Woodlands. This myth incorporates the earth-diver motif, which includes a flood that occurred after the creation of the universe and resulted in the re-creation of the present world out of mud brought up from under the water by the earth-diver, often a muskrat or waterfowl.

Also widespread are stories about the culture hero, whose father is divine and mother is a lesser being. The culture hero can be a sly trickster who relies on cunning and tricks to reach his goals, such as getting food or possessing a woman. The trickster is an overreacher who is frequently brought low after a temporary victory. Other motifs often present in Native American myths include star-husband, about an earth woman who yearns to marry a star; Orpheus, concerning the attempts of a spouse or loved one to bring a beloved person back from the world of the dead; animal husband or wife; abduction; and witches and monsters. While myths are true stories of the age before recorded history, tales may be either true or fictional and usually are set in the historical period. They may describe events significant to the history of the tribe, family, or individual.

Oratory has long been a highly regarded skill in many tribes, such as the Iroquois, Sioux, and Pima. Though most Native American orators were men, women sometimes play important roles as speakers. Ceremonies often contain addresses by shamans or priests to the supernatural powers or to the community. Nonceremonial speeches can include those made at council meetings, descriptions of victories over enemies, formal petitions, addresses of welcome, battle speeches to warriors, and statements of personal feeling or experience. Speeches made at meetings of Native Americans and settlers have been a major form of oratory since the arrival of the settlers.

Personal narratives, which achieved considerable popularity during the 19th and early 20th centuries, span both oral and written literatures, incorporating elements of oral storytelling and personal statement as well as narrated life history and written autobiography. Most of the life histories were narrated to translators or collaborators. As Native Americans became educated in the English language and literature, they began to write autobiographies that frequently combined oral history, myths and tales, and personal experience. The first published autobiography was A Son of the Forest (1829) by <IR> WILLIAM APES </IR> (Pequot), which reflects the tradition of the spiritual confessions of the period. Other significant autobiographies written in the 19th century include The Life, History, and Travels of Kah-gega-gah-bowh (1847) by <IR> GEORGE COPWAY </IR> (Ojibwa), which reveals the influence of spiritual confessions and missionary reminiscences, and Life Among the Piutes (1883) by <IR> SARAH WINNEMUCCA [HOPKINS] </IR> (Paiute). Both of these volumes include ethnohistory and personal experience. One of the most widely read autobiographers during the early 20th century was <IR> CHARLES EASTMAN </IR> (Sioux). His Indian Boyhood (1902) chronicles his life to age fifteen, and From the Deep Woods to Civilization (1916) describes his experiences in the white world. Both were written with his wife Elaine. Others who wrote autobiographies in the first half of this century include Luther Standing Bear (Sioux), Zitkala-Sa (Sioux), and <IR> FRANCIS LA FLESCHE </IR> (Omaha). Among those who have recorded their autobiographies more recently are Anna Moore Shaw (Pima), Ted Williams (Tuscarora), and James McCarthy (Papago). An example of literary autobiography is Talking to the Moon (1945) by <IR> JOHN JOSEPH MATTHEWS </IR> (Osage), whose work is influenced by Osage culture as well as by Thoreau and John Muir. Equally sophisticated are the autobiographies of <IR> N. SCOTT MOMADAY </IR> (Kiowa). His Way to Rainy Mountain (1969) chronicles the Kiowas' origin and migration to Oklahoma, their life both before and after the reservation period, and his own quest for tribal roots. His The Names (1976) is a more conventional autobiography that also traces his maternal ancestry and describes his childhood. Interior Landscapes (1990) by <IR> GERALD VIZENOR </IR> (Ojibwa) recreates his early life, army experiences, and emergence as a writer.

The genre of narrated autobiographies was introduced in Black Hawk, an Autobiography (1833), told by <IR> BLACK HAWK </IR> (Sauk), collected and translated by Antonie Le Claire, and edited in final form by John B. Patterson. A memoir contemporary to Black Hawk's is that of Governor Blacksnake (Seneca), recorded in Seneca-style English by Benjamin Williams and recently edited by Thomas Abler under the title Chainbreaker (1989). Twentieth-century Native American narrators who have collaborated with scholars in preparing excellent ethnographic autobiographies include Sam Blowsnake [Big Winnebago and Crashing Thunder] (Winnebago); Mountain Wolf Woman (Winnebago); Maria Chona (Papago); John Stands in Timber (Cheyenne); James Sewid (Kwakiutl); and Left Handed (Navajo). Me and Mine (1969), narrated by Helen Sekaquaptewa (Hopi) and written by Louise Udall, typifies the autobiography narrated by the subject to a friend. The most widely read oral life history is Black Elk Speaks (1932), narrated by <IR> BLACK ELK </IR> (Sioux) to author <IR> JOHN G. NEIHARDT </IR> . Far more literary than other such works, Black Elk Speaks records the life and visions of a Sioux holy man in his progress toward becoming a medicine man.

Falling somewhere between narrated and written personal narratives are those recorded in writing by subjects and later edited by scholars. Among these are The Warrior Who Killed Custer, recorded in Dakota by Chief White Bull (Sioux) but not published until 1968, and Sun Chief (1942), by Don Talayesva (Hopi) and revised and restructured by Leo W. Simmons. Important for the study of Indian women is <IR> MOURNING DOVE </IR> 's autobiography and ethnohistory, edited by Jay Miller and published under the title Mourning Dove: A Salishan Autobiography.

The first Native American author to publish in English was <IR> SAMSON OCCOM </IR> (Mohegan, 1723-92), who became a missionary to the Indians. His A Sermon Preached at the Execution of Moses Paul, an Indian (1772), the first Indian bestseller, reflects the tradition of the execution sermon then so popular in America and exemplified in the work of Increase and Cotton Mather. During the 19th century, many Indians wrote nonfiction prose. William Apes was a forceful writer of Indian protest literature whose works include "The Indian's Looking-Glass for the White Man," appended to the 1833 edition of his The Experience of Five Christian Indians of the Pequod Tribe, which charges whites with prejudice against Indians; Indian Nullification of the Unconstitutional Laws of Massachusetts Relative to the Marshpee Tribe (1835), which chronicles the attempts of this mixed-blood group of Wampanoags to regain self-government; and Eulogy on King Philip (1836), which attacks the inhuman treatment of Native Americans by the Pilgrims.

Many Native Americans in the 19th century wrote tribal histories that often contain myths and legends. Among these authors are <IR> GEORGE COPWAY </IR> (Ojibwa), William Whipple Warren (Ojibwa), Peter Dooyentate Clarke (Wyandot), Chief Elias Johnson (Tuscarora), David Cusick (Tuscarora), and Chief Andrew J. Blackbird (Ottawa). <IR> JOHN ROLLIN RIDGE </IR> (Cherokee, 1827-67) wrote a series of essays on Native Americans recently collected in A Trumpet of Our Own. Ridge was one of the few Native Americans to write fiction and poetry in the 19th century. His The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta (1854) is the first novel by a Native American author. In this romance, Ridge portrays the mixed-blood Murieta as a Byronic "noble outlaw" who turns to crime after he is victimized by white miners. It is also an early example of local color. Ridge's posthumous Poems (1868), most of which were written in his youth, is the only volume of poetry published by a Native American in the 19th century.

Perhaps the first novel to be written by an American Indian woman is Wynema, a Child of the Forest (1891) by Sophia Alice Callahan (Creek, 1868-1893). In this romance, Wynema, a Creek child who yearns for an education, introduces her teacher at a Methodist mission school to life in the Creek nation.

The first Native American woman to achieve acclaim as a poet and performer of her own works was <IR> EMILY PAULINE JOHNSON </IR> (Canadian Mohawk, 1861-1913), author of The White Wampum (1895), which includes many poems on Indian themes, and Canadian Born (1903). Her collected poems appear in Flint and Feather (1912). Johnson was also the first Native American woman to publish short fiction. Her Moccasin Maker (1913) contains short stories about Canadian Indian and non-Indian women.

During the 20th century, Native American authors increasingly wrote novels. Many of these deal with the quest by mixed-blood protagonists to find their place in society and with the importance of oral tradition to the survival of tribalism. In the first half of the century, Mourning Dove [Cristal Quintasket] (1888-1936), John Joseph Mathews (Osage, c.1894-1979) and <IR> D'ARCY MCNICKLE </IR> (Cree-Salish, 1904-1977) incorporate these themes in their novels. Cogewea, the Half Blood (1927), written by Mourning Dove in collaboration with Lucullus V. McWhorter, is one of the earliest novels written by a Native American woman. In the novel, Mourning Dove combines the portrayal of a strong-willed heroine who temporarily rejects her tribal heritage with plot elements from Westerns.

Mathews' Sundown (1934) focuses on the problems of a mixed-blood Osage whose abandonment of his ancestral past and inability to adjust to the white-dominated present result in alcoholism. Mathews' earlier Wah-Kon-Tah (1932) is a fictional account of the Osages' struggles to retain their traditions after they were forced onto reservations. The most polished novel by a Native American writer in the 1930s is McNickle's The Surrounded (1936), which chronicles the dilemma of a mixed-blood hero inadvertently caught up in unpremeditated murders that his mother and girl friend commit. His strongly traditional mother and a tribal elder lead the protagonist back to the Salish culture he had rejected. McNickle later wrote Runner in the Sun (1954), a novel for young people that evokes the life, customs, and beliefs of the ancient cliff dwellers of Chaco Canyon in what is now northwestern New Mexico.

Closer in theme to mainstream American fiction of the 1930s is Brothers Three (1935) by John Oskison (Cherokee, 1874-1947), which is a fine example of the regional novel and a vivid portrait of a part-Cherokee family trying to regain their Oklahoma land and their values. An example of an ethnographic novel is Water Lily by Ella Deloria (Sioux, 1888-1971), an anthropologist. Completed by 1944 but not published until 1988, it is a valuable portrayal of 19th-century Sioux life that chronicles Water Lily's life from birth through adulthood. The only Native American author of mystery and detective fiction during the first half of the 20th century is [George] Todd Downing (Choctaw, 1902-74), whose many novels, usually set in Mexico include Murder on Tour (1933), The Cat Screams (1934), and Night Over Mexico (1937).

Good examples of Native American satire are the prose writings of <IR> ALEXANDER POSEY </IR> (Creek, 1873-1901) and <IR> WILL ROGERS </IR> (Cherokee, 1879-1935). Using real Creek elders as characters, and writing in Creek-style English, Posey satirized in his "Fus Fixico Letters" the politics of Indian Territory and the nation as a whole. Posey's use of dialect and regionalism was influenced by Robert Burns, whom he greatly admired, and by <IR> FINLEY PETER DUNNE </IR> , whose satires featuring Mr. Dooley and Mr. Hennessey first appeared in the 1890s. National and international politics was the main theme of Rogers' satire. His books and miscellaneous writings are now being published as Complete Works, ed. Joseph A. Stout.

Little poetry was published by Native American writers during the first half of the 20th century. Mrs. Posey, after her husband's death, published The Poems of Alexander Posey (1910), most of which are romantic evocations of nature written in his youth. An interesting example of Indian dialect poetry is Yon-doo-sha-we-ah (1924) by Bertrand N.O. Walker [Hen-toh] (Wyandot), which contains some interesting character sketches and narratives. Far more sophisticated is [Rolla] <IR> LYNN RIGGS' </IR> Iron Dish (1930), which contains delicate lyrics and perceptive descriptions of nature.

During the first half of the 20th century, Riggs (Cherokee, 1899-1954) was the only major Native American dramatist. He is best known for Green Grow the Lilacs (1931), a folk drama that became the hit musical Oklahoma! (1954). Also widely praised was his Borned in Texas, produced as Roadside (1930). Cherokee Night (1936) describes the sense of loss faced by Oklahoma mixed bloods.

In the late 1960s a new generation of highly sophisticated Native American writers emerged. The first of these to achieve national attention was N. Scott Momaday, whose The House Made of Dawn (1968) won the Pulitzer Prize. The novel describes the ritual quest of a mixed-blood Pueblo World War II veteran for healing and suggests, at the end of the novel, the possibility that he may regain his sense of place, tribe, and self. The Ancient Child (1989) focuses the search for ritual healing by a mixed-blood artist, who becomes transformed into a bear through the aid of his lover, a Kiowa-Navajo visionary. Through the visions of the shaman and the experience of the protagonist, Momaday blends Native American myths of transformation and Western tales about Billy the Kid.

Ceremony (1977) by <IR> LESLIE MARMON SILKO </IR> (1948- ) demonstrates the healing power of tribal ritual and storytelling by reuniting her mixed-blood hero, a World-War II veteran, with his tribe at the end of the novel. <IR> PAULA GUNN ALLEN </IR> (Laguna-Sioux, 1939- ) brings a feminist perspective to her treatment of the ritual quest in The Woman Who Owned the Shadows (1983). The heroine gradually accepts herself as a mixed-blood woman only after she relives--through memory, Keres oral traditions, and pschotherapy--her relationships with her family and the destructive men in her life. Darkness in Saint Louis Bearheart (1978) by Gerald Vizenor (Ojibwa, 1934- ) also uses the theme of the quest. His surrealistic and satiric novel chronicles the journey of a bizarre group in search of ritual knowledge, which takes them from Minnesota to the Southwest.

In Winter in the Blood (1975), <IR> JAMES WELCH </IR> (Blackfeet-Gros Ventre (1940- ) focuses on the nameless hero's search for the truth about his family background and about his fierce Blackfeet grandmother's early life. In Welch's The Death of Jim Loney (1979), a mixed-blood protagonist also seeks information about his Indian family and the white father who psychologically abandons him. The protagonist finds his release from his psychic dilemma in an act that brings about his death. Welch's Fools Crow (1986) is a historical novel that describes the impact of white settlement on a Montana band of Blackfeet in 1870.

Native Americans have incorporated themes other than the ritual quest in their novels. <IR> LOUISE ERDRICH </IR> (Ojibwa, 1954- ) focuses on family and community relationships in Love Medicine (1984), Beet Queen (1986), and Tracks (1988). Set in Erdrich's native North Dakota and part of a projected series of four novels, they have gained Erdrich national recognition. Tracks and Love Medicine chronicle the relationships between members of a North Dakota Chippewa tribe from 1912 to 1983. Beet Queen deals primarily with the relationships between non-Indian characters in the off-reservation town of Argus. A Yellow Raft on Blue Water (1987) by Michael Dorris (Modoc, 1954- ) also takes the family as its theme. Set on a Montana reservation, the novel portrays three generations of women torn apart by secrets but bound by kinship. Erdrich and Dorris, who are married, collaborate on each other's works.

Contemporary Native American novelists have used a variety of approaches and themes in treating Indian life. McNickle's Wind from an Enemy Sky (1978) demonstrates again the narrative power of his earlier The Surrounded in this story of the clash between Indian and non-Indian values that ends in tragedy for both groups. Vizenor's latest novel, Griever: An American Monkey King in China (1987), is a satire that deals with the adventures of a mixed-Blood Indian who teaches English in a Chinese university and triumphs over Chinese bureaucracy as he becomes transformed into a Monkey King, the Chinese trickster. His Trickster of Liberty: Tribal Heirs to a Wild Baronage at Petronia (1988) describes a whole family of Indian tricksters who rebel against conventional systems and establish ingenious enterprises. Medicine River (1990) by Thomas King (Cherokee, 1943- ) combines humor and realism in this novel describing his mixed-blood protagonist's attempts to understand his family background; to readjust to his home town of Medicine River, an Indian community outside the Blackfoot reserve in Alberta; and to cope with the schemes of his friend Harlen Bigbear. In Jailing of Cecilia Capture (1985), Janet Campbell Hale (Coeur d'Alene-Kootenai, 1947- ) portrays the attempts of an urban Native American woman to restructure her life. This novel and her earlier Owl Song (1974), about a young boy, are among the few works dealing with urban Native Americans. Anna Walters (Otoe-Pawnee, 1946- ) blends mystery and Navaho-white relations in her Ghost Singer (1988), which attacks whites' inhumane practice of storing Indian skeletons and possessions in museums. Other Native American novelists include Hyemeyohsts Storm (Cheyenne, 1935- ), whose Seven Arrows (1972) aroused controversy because of its treatment of Cheyenne religion. His The Song of the Heyoehkah (1981) deals with a heroine's quest for ritual knowledge to become a shaman. The only novel by an Eskimo writer is Markoosie's Harpoon of the Hunter (1970).

One of the few American Indian mystery writers, <IR> MARTIN CRUZ SMITH </IR> (Senecu del Sur-Yaqui, 1942- ), has achieved national acclaim for four mystery novels, two of which have Indian themes. Both Nightwing (1977) and Stallion Gate (1986) have Indian protagonists who have left their pueblos, served in overseas wars, and returned to their homelands, where they feel separated from their people and their traditions. Far different are Smith's Gorky Park (1981) and Polar Star (1989), which deal with characters from both the Soviet Union and the United States.

Native American authors have also written much short fiction. Leslie Silko's short stories, which strongly reflect Laguna traditions, are collected with her poetry in Storyteller (1981). Simon Ortiz (Acoma, 1941- ) has also published a collection of short fiction, The Howbah Indians (1978) and Fightin' (1983).

Gerald Vizenor's Wordarrows (1978), Earthdivers (1981), and The People Named the Chippewa (1984) combine satiric short fiction and nonfiction. The most widely published Indian writer of nonfiction prose is <IR> VINE DELORIA </IR> , <IR> JR </IR> . (Sioux, 1933- ). His works combining political insight, wit, and satire are Custer Died for Your Sins (1969), which contains an interesting essay on Indian humor, and We Talk, You Listen (1970). He has also written numerous books on Native American religion, philosophy, Indian-white relations, and politics. Michael Dorris's The Broken Cord: A Family's On-Going Struggle with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (1989) portrays the author's efforts to raise his adopted son, Adam, a victim of the syndrome.

Since 1968, Native Americans have become prolific writers of poetry that reflects considerable variety in theme and form. Among the most widely published are Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna-Sioux), Jim Barnes (Choctaw), Barney Bush (Shawnee), Joy Harjo (Creek), Linda Hogan (Chickasaw), Maurice Kenny (Mohawk), Duane Niatum (Klallam), Simon Ortiz (Acoma), Wendy Rose (Hopi-Miwok), and Ray Young Bear (Mesquakie). Though primarily fiction writers, Louise Erdrich, N. Scott Momaday, Leslie Silko, James Welch, and Gerald Vizenor have also published poetry. Other talented poets include Peter Blue Cloud (Mohawk), Joe Bruchac (Abnakie), Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Sioux), Diane Burns (Ojibwa-Chemehuevi), Gladys Cardiff (Cherokee), Anita Endrezze-Danielson (Yaqui), Nia Francisco (Navajo), Diane Glancy (Cherokee), Lance Henson (Cheyenne), Adrian Louis (Paiute), William Oandasan (Yuki), Carter Revard (Osage), Mary Tall Mountain (Athabascan), and Luci Tapahonso (Navajo).

The forms of contemporary Native American poetry vary from traditional chants and songs to highly individualistic verse. Many poets incorporate into their poems such tribal myths as creation and emergence, earthdiver, and the trickster. Common themes include a sense of loss of tribal roots, often associated with a specific space that is part of the history of the author's tribe, and closeness to nature and animals. Native American poets also deal with the problems of identity that mixed-bloods face, the sense of displacement that urban Indians experience, and the injustice inflicted on their people by the dominant society. They describe how family and tribal values provide Native Americans with the sources of strength to withstand attempts to alter their culture. Native American women poets frequently focus on the family and the role of women. Many emphasize and pay tribute to the grandmothers who traditionally helped raise the children and educated them in tribal culture. Although much of this poetry deals with Indian themes, writers are increasingly turning to other subjects as well. Several women writers have focused some of their recent poems on their reactions to maturation and aging.

From the time Native Americans migrated to this continent, they have created a rich heritage of oral and written literatures. Only by acknowledging the contributions of Native Americans to the rich mosaic of American literature can we understand the real history of our nation. To experience the imaginative world of Native America, we need only accept Paula Gunn Allen's challenge to "follow the winding corridors of winter tales/enter into the moving paths of shape and time." Studies include Handbook of North American Indians (in progress, edited by William C. Sturtevant, 20 v.); Paula Gunn Allen, The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine in American Indian Tradition (1986); H. David Brumble III, American Indian Autobiography (1988); Arnold Krupat, For Those Who Come After: A Study of Native American Autobiography (1985) and The Voice in the Margin: Native American Literature and the Canon (1989); Charles R. Larson, American Indian Fiction (1978); A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff, American Indian Literatures: An Introduction, Bibliographic Review and Selected Bibliography (1990); and Andrew O. Wiget, Native American Literature (1985).

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Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|A16853271