Article Reading Levels
  • Level 3

Document controls


Citation metadata

Date: 2015
Publisher: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.
Document Type: Topic overview
Length: 401 words
Lexile Measure: 940L

Main content

Full Text: 

Copper was the first metal that humans used to make tools. The chemical element is sometimes found on its own in nature, so early people were able to find it and use it. They may have done this as early as 10,000 years ago. By about 6500 bc people learned how to shape copper, and by about 3500 bc they learned how to melt copper and mix it with tin to make bronze. This led to an important period of history known as the Bronze Age. Scientists use symbols to stand for the chemical elements. The symbol for copper is Cu.

Where Copper Is Found

Copper often combines with other elements to form compounds. Rocks that contain these compounds are called copper ores. Chalcocite, chalcopyrite, bornite, cuprite, and malachite are common copper ores. Scientists must separate the copper from the other elements to obtain pure copper. The greatest known deposit of copper is in the Andean Mountains of Chile. In addition to Chile, the United States, Indonesia, Peru, Australia, and Russia also produce large amounts of the element. Copper is also present in the ashes of seaweeds, in many sea corals, in the human liver, and in many mollusks and arthropods.


Copper is easy to shape. It can be rolled into thin sheets or drawn out into long, thin wire. It is not affected by the action of the atmosphere and seawater. However, when it is exposed for long periods to air it forms a thin protective coating that has a greenish color. It also is a very good conductor of heat and electricity. This means that heat and electricity travel through it very well. Copper also combines easily with almost all metals.


Because it is a good conductor of electricity and heat, copper is often used in electrical products, motor vehicle radiators, air conditioners, and home heating systems. Water pipes and other plumbing parts are also often made of copper.

Copper is an important part of several alloys, or combinations of metals and other elements. These include brasses (copper and zinc) and bronzes (copper and tin). There are also many useful alloys of copper and nickel as well as copper and aluminum.

Source Citation

Source Citation   

Gale Document Number: GALE|MVHKTT334648788